26,763 research outputs found

    Education as an Industry

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    Searching for the reionization sources

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    Using a reionization model simultaneously accounting for a number of experimental data sets, we investigate the nature and properties of reionization sources. Such model predicts that hydrogen reionization starts at z \approx 15, is initially driven by metal-free (PopIII) stars, and is 90% complete by z \approx 8. We find that a fraction f_\gamma >80% of the ionizing power at z > 7 comes from haloes of mass M<10^9 M_sun predominantly harbouring PopIII stars; a turnover to a PopII-dominated phase occurs shortly after, with this population, residing in M>10^9 M_sun haloes, yielding f_\gamma \approx 60% at z=6. Using Lyman-break broadband dropout techniques, J-band detection of sources contributing to 50% (90%) of the ionizing power at z \sim 7.5 requires to reach a magnitude J_{110,AB} = 31.2 (31.7), where about 15 (30) (PopIII) sources/arcmin^2 are predicted. We conclude that z>7 sources tentatively identified in broadband surveys are relatively massive (M \approx 10^9 M_sun) and rare objects which are only marginally (\approx 1%) adding to the reionization photon budget.Comment: Extended discussions. Accepted to MNRAS Letter

    An improved model of HII bubbles during the epoch of reionization

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    The size distribution of ionized regions during the epoch of reionization -- a key ingredient in understanding the HI power spectrum observable by 21cm experiments -- can be modelled analytically using the excursion set formalism of random walks in the smoothed initial density field. To date, such calculations have been based on simplifying assumptions carried forward from the earliest excursion set models of two decades ago. In particular, these models assume that the random walks have uncorrelated steps and that haloes can form at arbitrary locations in the initial density field. We extend these calculations by incorporating recent technical developments that allow us to (a) include the effect of correlations in the steps of the walks induced by a realistic smoothing filter and (b) more importantly, account for the fact that dark matter haloes preferentially form near peaks in the initial density. A comparison with previous calculations shows that including these features, particularly the peaks constraint on halo locations, has large effects on the size distribution of the HII bubbles surrounding these haloes. For example, when comparing models at the same value of the globally averaged ionized volume fraction, the typical bubble sizes predicted by our model are more than a factor 2 larger than earlier calculations. Our results can potentially have a significant impact on estimates of the observable HI power spectrum.Comment: 13 pages, 6 figures; v2 - added clarifications and fixed typos. Accepted in MNRA

    A Note on Hypervector Spaces

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    The main aim of this paper is to generalize the concept of vector space by the hyperstructure. We generalize some definitions such as hypersubspaces, linear combination, Hamel basis, linearly dependence and linearly independence. A few important results like deletion theorem, extension theorem, dimension theorem have been established in this hypervector space.Comment: 17 page

    Semi analytic approach to understanding the distribution of neutral hydrogen in the universe

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    Analytic derivations of the correlation function and the column density distribution for neutral hydrogen in the IGM are presented, assuming that the non-linear baryonic mass density distribution in the IGM is lognormal. This ansatz was used earlier by Bi & Davidsen (1997) to perform 1D simulations of lines-of-sight and analyse the properties of absorption systems. Our approach is completely analytic, which allows us to explore a wide region of the parameter space for our model. The analytic results have been compared with observations, whenever possible. Two kinds of correlation functions are defined: along the line-of-sight (LOS) and across the transverse direction. We find that the effects on the LOS correlation due to change in cosmology and the slope of the equation of state of the IGM, \gamma are of the same order, which means that we cannot constrain both the parameters simultaneously. However, it is possible to constrain \gamma and its evolution using the observed LOS correlation function at different epochs, provided one knows the background cosmology. We suggest that the constraints on the evolution of \gamma obtained using the LOS correlation can be used as an independent tool to probe the reionisation history of the universe. From the transverse correlation function, we find that the excess probability, over random, of finding two neutral hydrogen overdense regions separated by an angle \theta, is always less than 1 per cent for redshifts greater than 2. Our models also reproduce the observed column density distribution for neutral hydrogen and the shape of the distribution depends on \gamma. Our calculations suggest that one can rule out \gamma > 1.6 for z \simeq 2.31 using the column density distribution. However, one cannot rule higher values of \gamma at higher redshifts.Comment: 16 pages, 8 figures. Accepted for publication in MNRAS. Revised following referee's comment

    Cosmological magnetic fields from nonlinear effects

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    In the standard cosmological model, magnetic fields and vorticity are generated during the radiation era via second-order density perturbations. In order to clarify the complicated physics of this second-order magnetogenesis, we use a covariant approach and present the electromagneto-dynamical equations in the fully nonlinear regime. We use the tight-coupling approximation to analyze Thomson and Coulomb scattering. At the zero-order limit of exact tight-coupling, we show that the vorticity is zero and no magnetogenesis takes place at any nonlinear order. We show that magnetogenesis also fails at all orders if either protons or electrons have the same velocity as the radiation, and momentum transfer is neglected. At first-order in the tight-coupling approximation, magnetic fields and vorticity still cannot be generated even via nonlinear effects. However, at second-order both of them are generated, and we derive a closed set of nonlinear evolution equations that governs this generation

    Non-Hermitian Quantum Mechanics with Minimal Length Uncertainty

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    We study non-Hermitian quantum mechanics in the presence of a minimal length. In particular we obtain exact solutions of a non-Hermitian displaced harmonic oscillator and the Swanson model with minimal length uncertainty. The spectrum in both the cases are found to be real. It is also shown that the models are η\eta pseudo-Hermitian and the metric operator is found explicitly in both the cases
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