242 research outputs found

    New constraints on R-parity violation from proton stability

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    We derive stringent upper bounds on all the (λijkμl)(\lambda''_{ijk} \mu_l)-type combinations from the consideration of proton stability, where λijk\lambda''_{ijk} are baryon-number-violating trilinear couplings and μl\mu_l are lepton-number-violating bilinear mass parameters in a R-parity-violating supersymmetric theory.Comment: 4 pages, Latex, uses axodraw.sty (in the revised version all combinations of the form λ"ijkμl\lambda"_{ijk}\mu_l have been constrained, using one-loop graphs) To appear in Phys. Lett.

    Cobb-Douglas Based Firm Production Model under Fuzzy Environment and its Solution using Geometric Programming

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    In this paper, we consider Cobb-Douglas production function based model in a firm under fuzzy environment, and its solution technique by making use of geometric programming. A firm may use many finite inputs such as labour, capital, coal, iron etc. to produce one single output. It is well known that the primary intention of using production function is to determine maximum output for any given combination of inputs. Also, the firm may gain competitive advantages if it can buy and sell in any quantities at exogenously given prices, independent of initial production decisions. On the other hand, in reality, constraints and/or objective functions in an optimization model may not be crisp quantities. These are usually imprecise in nature and are better represented by using fuzzy sets. Again, geometric programming has many advantages over other optimization techniques. In this paper, Cobb-Douglas production function based models are solved by applying geometric programming technique under fuzzy environment. Illustrative numerical examples further demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of proposed model under fuzzy environment. Conclusions are drawn at last

    GPTCloneBench: A comprehensive benchmark of semantic clones and cross-language clones using GPT-3 model and SemanticCloneBench

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    With the emergence of Machine Learning, there has been a surge in leveraging its capabilities for problem-solving across various domains. In the code clone realm, the identification of type-4 or semantic clones has emerged as a crucial yet challenging task. Researchers aim to utilize Machine Learning to tackle this challenge, often relying on the BigCloneBench dataset. However, it's worth noting that BigCloneBench, originally not designed for semantic clone detection, presents several limitations that hinder its suitability as a comprehensive training dataset for this specific purpose. Furthermore, CLCDSA dataset suffers from a lack of reusable examples aligning with real-world software systems, rendering it inadequate for cross-language clone detection approaches. In this work, we present a comprehensive semantic clone and cross-language clone benchmark, GPTCloneBench by exploiting SemanticCloneBench and OpenAI's GPT-3 model. In particular, using code fragments from SemanticCloneBench as sample inputs along with appropriate prompt engineering for GPT-3 model, we generate semantic and cross-language clones for these specific fragments and then conduct a combination of extensive manual analysis, tool-assisted filtering, functionality testing and automated validation in building the benchmark. From 79,928 clone pairs of GPT-3 output, we created a benchmark with 37,149 true semantic clone pairs, 19,288 false semantic pairs(Type-1/Type-2), and 20,770 cross-language clones across four languages (Java, C, C#, and Python). Our benchmark is 15-fold larger than SemanticCloneBench, has more functional code examples for software systems and programming language support than CLCDSA, and overcomes BigCloneBench's qualities, quantification, and language variety limitations.Comment: Accepted in 39th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution(ICSME 2023

    Quantum phase transition in few-layer NbSe2_2 probed through quantized conductance fluctuations

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    We present the first observation of dynamically modulated quantum phase transition (QPT) between two distinct charge density wave (CDW) phases in 2-dimensional 2H-NbSe2_2. There is recent spectroscopic evidence for the presence of these two quantum phases, but its evidence in bulk measurements remained elusive. We studied suspended, ultra-thin \nbse devices fabricated on piezoelectric substrates - with tunable flakes thickness, disorder level and strain. We find a surprising evolution of the conductance fluctuation spectra across the CDW temperature: the conductance fluctuates between two precise values, separated by a quantum of conductance. These quantized fluctuations disappear for disordered and on-substrate devices. With the help of mean-field calculations, these observations can be explained as to arise from dynamical phase transition between the two CDW states. To affirm this idea, we vary the lateral strain across the device via piezoelectric medium and map out the phase diagram near the quantum critical point (QCP). The results resolve a long-standing mystery of the anomalously large spectroscopic gap in NbSe2_2

    Momentum-dependent contributions to the gravitational coupling of neutrinos in a medium

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    When neutrinos travel through a normal matter medium, the electron neutrinos couple differently to gravity compared to the other neutrinos, due to the presence of electrons in the medium and the absence of the other charged leptons. We calculate the momentum-dependent part of the matter-induced gravitational couplings of the neutrinos under such conditions, which arise at order g2/MW4g^2/M^4_W, and determine their contribution to the neutrino dispersion relation in the presence of a gravitational potential ϕext\phi^{\mathrm{ext}}. These new contributions vanish for the muon and tau neutrinos. For electron neutrinos with momentum KK, they are of the order of the usual Wolfenstein term times the factor (K2/MW2)ϕext(K^2/M^2_W)\phi^{\mathrm{ext}}, for high energy neutrinos. In environments where the gravitational potential is substantial, such as those in the vicinity of Active Galactic Nuclei, they could be the dominant term in the neutrino dispersion relation. They must also be taken into account in the analysis of possible violations of the Equivalence Principle in the neutrino sector, in experimental settings involving high energy neutrinos traveling through a matter background.Comment: Minor corrections in the references; one reference adde

    Determination of Apposite Plant Regeneration Protocol for Several Cucurbits through Direct and Indirect Organogenesis

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    A competent and reproducible practice for the invitro shoot regeneration of Cucurbita maxima,C.pepo and Cucumissativus was developed from various explants through direct and indirect organogenesis.InC. maxima, between cotyledon and leaf segment, cotyledon was found to be most responsive for callus induction in MS medium augmented with 0.5 mg·L-1 2,4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) plus 100 mg·L-1 casein hydrolysate and 0.5 mg·L-1 2,4-D plus 15% coconut water and for leaf segment it was on MS medium containing 2.5 mg·L-1 2,4-D. Comparing the 2 explants it was found that leaf segment was most suitable for callus induction in C. maxima. For massive multiplication of C. pepomericlones shoot tip and nodal cutting were used. MS medium containing 3.0 mg·L-1 6-benzyl aminopurine plus 0.5 mg·L-1gibberellic acid (GA3) was found most effective for shoot regeneration and 1.0 mg·L-1 IBA was found most effective for rooting. In this trait cv. Bulum was more responsive than cv. Rumbo. On the other hand, to generate virus free plantlets of C. sativus, different concentrations of kinetin were used, and 1.5 mg·L-1 KIN shown the best performance for primary culture establishment. For shoot multiplication, 1.0 mg·L-1 BAP and 2.0 mg·L-1 BAP plus 0.5 mg·L-1 KIN containing medium shown best result. Subsequently, 2.0 mg·L-1 BAP plus 0.5 mg·L-1 KIN was best composition for root induction. Our report demonstrated comprehensive protocols and variability in explants, growth regulator response in shoot regeneration potential of in different cucurbit plants

    Open data from the first and second observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo

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    Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are monitoring the sky and collecting gravitational-wave strain data with sufficient sensitivity to detect signals routinely. In this paper we describe the data recorded by these instruments during their first and second observing runs. The main data products are gravitational-wave strain time series sampled at 16384 Hz. The datasets that include this strain measurement can be freely accessed through the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center at http://gw-openscience.org, together with data-quality information essential for the analysis of LIGO and Virgo data, documentation, tutorials, and supporting software

    Open data from the first and second observing runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo

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    Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are monitoring the sky and collecting gravitational-wave strain data with sufficient sensitivity to detect signals routinely. In this paper we describe the data recorded by these instruments during their first and second observing runs. The main data products are gravitational-wave strain time series sampled at 16384 Hz. The datasets that include this strain measurement can be freely accessed through the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center at http://gw-openscience.org, together with data-quality information essential for the analysis of LIGO and Virgo data, documentation, tutorials, and supporting software

    Can Homeopathic Arsenic Remedy Combat Arsenic Poisoning in Humans Exposed to Groundwater Arsenic Contamination?: A Preliminary Report on First Human Trial

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    Groundwater arsenic (As) has affected millions of people globally distributed over 20 countries. In parts of West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh alone, over 100 million people are at risk, but supply of As-free water is grossly inadequate. Attempts to remove As by using orthodox medicines have mostly been unsuccessful. A potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album-30, was administered to a group of As affected people and thereafter the As contents in their urine and blood were periodically determined. The activities of various toxicity marker enzymes and compounds in the blood, namely aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione, were also periodically monitored up to 3 months. The results are highly encouraging and suggest that the drug can alleviate As poisoning in humans

    Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019 : a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background Ending the global tobacco epidemic is a defining challenge in global health. Timely and comprehensive estimates of the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden are needed to guide tobacco control efforts nationally and globally. Methods We estimated the prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden for 204 countries and territories, by age and sex, from 1990 to 2019 as part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study. We modelled multiple smoking-related indicators from 3625 nationally representative surveys. We completed systematic reviews and did Bayesian meta-regressions for 36 causally linked health outcomes to estimate non-linear dose-response risk curves for current and former smokers. We used a direct estimation approach to estimate attributable burden, providing more comprehensive estimates of the health effects of smoking than previously available. Findings Globally in 2019, 1.14 billion (95% uncertainty interval 1.13-1.16) individuals were current smokers, who consumed 7.41 trillion (7.11-7.74) cigarette-equivalents of tobacco in 2019. Although prevalence of smoking had decreased significantly since 1990 among both males (27.5% [26. 5-28.5] reduction) and females (37.7% [35.4-39.9] reduction) aged 15 years and older, population growth has led to a significant increase in the total number of smokers from 0.99 billion (0.98-1.00) in 1990. Globally in 2019, smoking tobacco use accounted for 7.69 million (7.16-8.20) deaths and 200 million (185-214) disability-adjusted life-years, and was the leading risk factor for death among males (20.2% [19.3-21.1] of male deaths). 6.68 million [86.9%] of 7.69 million deaths attributable to smoking tobacco use were among current smokers. Interpretation In the absence of intervention, the annual toll of 7.69 million deaths and 200 million disability-adjusted life-years attributable to smoking will increase over the coming decades. Substantial progress in reducing the prevalence of smoking tobacco use has been observed in countries from all regions and at all stages of development, but a large implementation gap remains for tobacco control. Countries have a dear and urgent opportunity to pass strong, evidence-based policies to accelerate reductions in the prevalence of smoking and reap massive health benefits for their citizens. Copyright (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.Peer reviewe
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