1,838 research outputs found

    Modeling dislocation sources and size effects at initial yield in continuum plasticity

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    Size effects at initial yield (prior to stage II) of idealized micron-sized specimens are modeled within a continuum model of plasticity. Two different aspects are considered: specification of a density of dislocation sources that represent the emission of dislocation dipoles, and the presence of an initial, spatially inhomogeneous excess dislocation content. Discreteness of the source distribution appears to lead to a stochastic response in stress-strain curves, with the stochasticity diminishing as the number of sources increases. Variability in stress-strain response due to variations of source distribution is also shown. These size effects at initial yield are inferred to be due to physical length scales in dislocation mobility and the discrete description of sources that induce internal-stress-related effects, and not due to length-scale effects in the mean-field strain-hardening response (as represented through a constitutive equation)

    The morphology of the Weberian apparatus of Labeo umbratus Smith

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    In Labeo umbratus only the first three anterior vertebrae undergo any modification. These vertebrae are not completely anchylosed with each other and are closely associated with the four Weberian ossicles. Movement is however restricted between these vertebrae since this is essential for the efficient functioning of the Weberian ossicles. The first vertebra is well developed the absence of a spinous process and neural arch in the first vertebra may perhaps be explained by the findings of some workers who derive the claustrum from the former and the scaphium from the latter. A small muscle has its origin on the claustrum and its insertion in the angle formed by the dorsal and medial processes of the scaphium. A second muscle originates in the pit-like excavation of the first vertebra and is inserted on the ventral process of the scaphium. The intercalarium possesses horizontal, articular and ascending processes; a portion of the horizontal process being imbedded in the interossicular ligament. In Labeo umbratus it is unlikely that the intercalarium represents (if it does so at all) the entire neural arch of the second vertebra. From a morphological point of view it seems likely that the intercalarium may function as a lever. A transversely situated ductus endolymphaticus joins the two sacculi to each other. The sagitta, in the region of the ductus endolymphaticus has a long, lateral "wing-like" process which projects into the cavity of the sacculus. The sacculus anilagena are innervated by the n. saccularis and the n. lagenaris respectively. The ductus endolymphaticus is prolonged posteriorly into a median unpaired sinus endolymphaticus. Although the only serious objection to Weber's theory is the fact that there could be no differential action of the two ears, the basic idea seems valid. Sagemehl's theory cannot be accepted. It seems likely that the Weberian ossicles are necessary structures for audition and to the hydrostatia function of the air-bladder

    Stocking Threadfin Shad: Consequences for Young-of-Year Fishes

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    Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense are commonly introduced into reservoirs to supplement prey available to piscivorous fishes. To determine how early life stages of threadfin shad and their potential competitors and predators interact, we introduced this species into two Ohio lakes—Clark and Stonelick—and evaluated how its young of year influenced young-of-year bluegills Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. After adults were stocked in April, peak abundance of young-of-year threadfin shad occurred in August in both lakes. Bluegills generally spawned earlier than threadfin shad, which apparently reduced competition between young of these species. In Clark Lake, young-of-year threadfin shad did not reduce zooplankton populations, but in Stonelick Lake, peak abundance of young-of-year threadfin shad was followed by a precipitous decline in zooplankton. Data on cladoceran birth rates indicated this decline was due to increased predation by threadfin shad. Survival of bluegills to a size at which they move into the littoral zone also declined in Stonelick Lake, perhaps because of the virtual elimination of zooplankton. Limited survival of bluegills in turn contributed to reduced growth of young-of-year largemouth bass dependent on them as prey. Given that zooplankton declined in one but not the other lake, interactions among young-of-year fishes due to annually introduced threadfin shad will likely vary among systems and years. Nonetheless, introduced threadfin shad could, in some systems in some years, negatively affect growth and recruitment of the very species they were meant to enhance.This work was funded in part by National Science Foundation grants NSF BSR-8705518 to R. A. Stein and NSF BSR-8715730 to G. G. Mittelbach, and by Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Project F-57-R awarded to R. A. Stein and administered through the Ohio Division of Wildlife