44,146 research outputs found

    Republican Party of Minnesota v. White: Should Judges Be More Like Politicians?

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    The Supreme Court\u27s decision in Republican Party of Minnesota v. White shows how unrealistic five justices can be about what happens in judicial election campaigns, and also - ironically - about how much judges differ from legislators and others who run for office. This reality was captured concisely by Robert Hirshon, immediate past president of the American Bar Association (ABA) in his statement following the Court\u27s ruling: This is a bad decision. It will open a Pandora\u27s Box.... The decision will change judicial election campaigns in such a way that the quality of the pool of candidates for the bench will likely diminish, good judges will be less willing to seek reelection, and the public\u27s cynical view that judges are merely another group of politicians will gain further impetus. This will directly hurt state courts and indirectly hurt all our courts. After noting the majority and separate opinions - which, unsurprisingly, raise many questions - this article will predict what litigation lies ahead, then describe the current judicial election environment and prospects for reform

    Judges\u27 Pay: A Chasm Far Worse than Realized, and Worsening

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    For our state judges today, let us put aside what might be thought their appropriate reward compared to the reward for private-sector lawyers. Of course judges earn less than they would in private practice, and of course judges enjoy rewards other than salaries. What is surprising is how severe the gap is between the pay for judges and for the private bar-and, strikingly, the gap between the pay for judges and for other public employees. What is deeply disturbing, indeed dangerous, is how the gaps are worsening. Our compensation for judges is so low, that by reducing the caliber and stature of those who are in the pool... willing to serve, this treatment is the most widespread, persistent, and damaging attack on judicial independence-as Chief Justice Roberts said

    Recent results for source function imaging from AGS through CERN SPS to RHIC

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    Recent femtoscopic measurements involving the use of an imaging technique and a newly developed moment analysis are presented and discussed. We show that this new paradigm allows robust investigation of reaction dynamics for which the sound speed cs0c_s \neq 0 during an extended hadronization period. Source functions extracted for charged pions produced in Au+Au and Pb+Pb collisions show non-Gaussian tails for a broad selection of collision energies. The ratio of the RMS radii of these source functions in the out and side directions are found to be greater than 1, suggesting a finite emission time for pions.Comment: Proceedings, XXXVI International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics/Workshop on Particle Correlations and Femtoscopy, Brazil, 200

    Analyzing the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002

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    The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 ( BCRA ) is the laboratory in campaign finance law. When analyzing BCRA, it is important to look at the Missouri state law that led to the Supreme Court case, Nixon v. Shrink Missouri Government PAC. In Shrink Missouri, five justices upheld Missouri\u27s relatively low simple limit on contributions to candidates. The law in Missouri limited contributions by anyone to candidates, but there was no limit as to how much a person or entity could give to a political party committee or to a political action committee (PAC). Further, there was no limit on how much a committee could give to another committee or any limits on contributions or spending by corporations, unions, or PACs

    Impacts of White

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    Changes in judicial elections stem from four identifiable causes. First, court decisions involve increasingly higher stakes and more serious consequences. The U.S. Senate confirmation battles also reflect this cause. Second, non-candidate groups, many from out of state, bring in enormous sums of money which often leads to ugly, even damaging, campaigns. Third, the first two causes are making judicial campaigns more like non-judicial campaigns, bringing new elements to judicial campaigns: campaign consultants and a win-at-any-cost approach

    Searching for the reionization sources

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    Using a reionization model simultaneously accounting for a number of experimental data sets, we investigate the nature and properties of reionization sources. Such model predicts that hydrogen reionization starts at z \approx 15, is initially driven by metal-free (PopIII) stars, and is 90% complete by z \approx 8. We find that a fraction f_\gamma >80% of the ionizing power at z > 7 comes from haloes of mass M<10^9 M_sun predominantly harbouring PopIII stars; a turnover to a PopII-dominated phase occurs shortly after, with this population, residing in M>10^9 M_sun haloes, yielding f_\gamma \approx 60% at z=6. Using Lyman-break broadband dropout techniques, J-band detection of sources contributing to 50% (90%) of the ionizing power at z \sim 7.5 requires to reach a magnitude J_{110,AB} = 31.2 (31.7), where about 15 (30) (PopIII) sources/arcmin^2 are predicted. We conclude that z>7 sources tentatively identified in broadband surveys are relatively massive (M \approx 10^9 M_sun) and rare objects which are only marginally (\approx 1%) adding to the reionization photon budget.Comment: Extended discussions. Accepted to MNRAS Letter