28 research outputs found

    La Tutela y Sus Alternativas: un manual sobre la ley de Maryland

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    This is a Spanish language edition of the 2011 edition of Guardianship and Its Alternatives: a Handbook on Maryland Law edited by Virginia Rowthorn and Ellen Callegary available at: http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/fac_pubs/1163https://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/books/1064/thumbnail.jp

    Global/Local: What Does It Mean for Global Health Educators and How Do We Do It?

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    Background: There has been dramatic growth in the number of innovative university programs that focus on social justice and teach community-based strategies that are applicable both domestically in North America and internationally. These programs often are referred to as 'global/local'and reflect an effort to link global health and campus community engagement efforts to acknowledge that a common set of transferable skills can be adapted to work with vulnerable populations wherever they may be. However, the concepts underlying global/local education are undertheorized and universities struggle to make the global/local link without a conceptual framework to guide them in this pursuit. Objectives: This study reports on the outcomes of a 2015 national meeting of 120 global health educators convened to discuss the concepts underlying global/local education, to share models of global/local programs, and to draft a preliminary list of critical elements of a meaningful and didactically sound global/local educational program. Methods: A qualitative analysis was conducted of the discussions that took place at the national meeting. The analysis was supported by videorecordings made of full-group discussions. Results were categorized into a preliminary list of global/local program elements. Additionally, a synthesis was developed of critical issues raised at the meeting that warrant future discussion and study. Findings: A preliminary list was developed of 7 program components that global health educators consider essential to categorize a program as global/local and to ensure that such a program includes specific critical elements. Conclusions: Interest is great among global health educators to understand and teach the conceptual link between learning on both the global and community levels. Emphasis on this link has high potential to unite the siloed fields of global health and domestic community public health and the institutions, funding options, and career pathways that flow from them. Future research should focus on implementation of global/local programming and evaluation of student learning and community health outcomes related to such programs

    Probiotics: Achieving a Better Regulatory Fit

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    In 2007, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Human Microbiome Project (HMP), a $150 million initiative to characterize the microbial communities found at several different sites on the human body and to analyze the role of these microbes in human health and disease. Many lines of research have demonstrated the significant role of the microbiota in human physiology. The microbiota is involved, for example, in the healthy development of the immune system, prevention of infection from pathogenic or opportunistic microbes, and maintenance of intestinal barrier function. The HMP findings are helping us understand the role and variation of microorganisms within and across individuals, they are also promoting interest in the development of probiotic products. NIH set aside a portion of HMP funds to study the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) of the HMP’s scientific goals. Among the funded ELSI studies was an effort to look at the current regulatory framework for probiotics and to determine if it is a good fit for the range of probiotics that are on the market, under development, or that may be developed in the future as a result of the HMP. This article reports on the findings of a Working Group consisting of NIH-funded HMP scientists, physicians, legal academics, government regulators, industry and consumer representatives, bioethicists, food and drug lawyers, and health policymakers who were assembled to address the adequacy of the current regulatory framework for probiotics under the HMP ELSI funded project. Specifically, after discussion of the features of probiotics that are relevant to their regulation and an overview of FDA’s current regulation of probiotics, the article addresses the following questions: 1) Do current regulations adequately address the safety of new probiotic products? 2) Should probiotic foods and dietary supplements be classified as drugs and required to go through the drug approval process? 3) What types of product characterization requirements are appropriate for probiotics? 4) Are current claim regulations appropriate for probiotics and, if not, how might they be improved

    Probiotics: Finding the Right Regulatory Balance

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    Some products marketed as drugs should be excused from Phase I trials, but safety and efficacy claims for dietary supplements should be more tightly regulated

    Global Learning for Health Equity: A Literature Review

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    BACKGROUND: In high income countries struggling with escalating health care costs and persistent lack of equity, there is growing interest in searching for innovative solutions developed outside national borders, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Engaging with global ideas to apply them to local health equity challenges is becoming increasingly recognized as an approach to shift the health equity landscape in the United States (US) in a significant way. No single name or set of practices yet defines the process of identifying LMIC interventions for adaptation; implementing interventions in high-income countries (HIC) settings; or evaluating the implementation of such projects. OBJECTIVES: This paper presents a review of the literature describing the practice of adapting global ideas for use in the US, particularly in the area of health equity. Specifically, the authors sought to examine; (i) the literature that advocates for, or describes, adaption of health-related innovations from LMICs to HICs, both generally and for health equity specifically, and (ii) implementation practices, strategies, and evidence-based outcomes in this field, generally and in the area of health equity specifically. The authors also propose terminology and a definition to describe the practice. METHODS: The literature search included two main concepts: global learning and health equity (using these and related terms). The search consisted of text-words and database-specific terminology (e.g., MeSH, Emtree) using PubMed, Embase (Elsevier), CINAHL (Ebsco), and Scopus in March 2021. The authors also contacted relevant experts to identify grey literature. Identified sources were categorized according to theme to facilitate analysis. In addition, five key interviews with experts engaged with global ideas to promote health equity in the United States were conducted to develop additional data. RESULTS: The literature review yielded over ninety (n = 92) sources relating to the adaptation of global ideas from low resource to higher resource settings to promote health equity (and related concepts). Identified sources range from those providing general commentaries about the value of seeking health-related innovations outside the US border to sources describing global projects implemented in the US, most without implementation or outcome measures. Other identified sources provide frameworks or guidance to help identify and/or implement global ideas in the US, and some describe the role of the World Health Organization and other international consortia in promoting a global approach to solving domestic health equity and related challenges. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review demonstrates that there are resources and commentary describing potential benefits of identifying and adapting novel global ideas to address health equity in the US, but there is a dearth of implementation and evaluation data. Terminology is required to define and frame the field. Additional research, particularly in the area of implementation science and evidence-based frameworks to support the practice of what we define as \u27global learning\u27 for health equity, is necessary to advance the practice

    Creating an interprofessional faculty and student global health grant program

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    UMB Center for Global Education Initiatives Founded in 2004 with an NIH Fogarty International Center ‚ÄúFramework‚ÄĚ Grant that provided funds to universities to encourage capacity building & training in global health across schools on an academic campus. Focus: interprofessional global health educatio

    Identifying Interprofessional Global Health Competencies for 21st-Century Health Professionals

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    Background: At the 2008 inaugural meeting of the Consortium of Universities for¬†Global Health¬†(CUGH), participants discussed the rapid expansion of global health programs and the lack of standardized competencies and curricula to guide these programs. In 2013, CUGH appointed a Global Health Competency Subcommittee and charged this subcommittee with identifying broad global health core competencies applicable across disciplines. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to describe the Subcommittee's work and proposed list of interprofessional global health competencies. Methods: After agreeing on a definition of global health to guide the Subcommittee's work, members conducted an extensive literature review to identify existing competencies in all fields relevant to global health. Subcommittee members initially identified 82 competencies in 12 separate domains, and proposed four different competency levels. The proposed competencies and domains were discussed during multiple conference calls, and subcommittee members voted to determine the final competencies to be included in two of the four proposed competency levels (global citizen and basic operational level ‚Äď program oriented). Findings: The final proposed list included a total of 13 competencies across 8 domains for the Global Citizen Level and 39 competencies across 11 domains for the Basic Operational Program-Oriented Level. Conclusions: There is a need for continued debate and dialog to validate the proposed set of competencies, and a need for further research to identify best strategies for incorporating these competencies into global health educational programs. Future research should focus on implementation and evaluation of these competencies across a range of educational programs, and further delineating the competencies needed across all four proposed competency levels
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