2,986 research outputs found

    Brassinosteroids interact with nitric oxide in the response of rice root systems to arsenic stress

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    Brassinosteroids (BRs), an emerging class of phytohormones, affect numerous plant physiological and metabolic processes and can improve plant defense systems to counteract metalloid phytotoxicity. Nitric oxide (NO), a reactive nitrogen species (RNS), behaves as a signalling molecule activating plant cellular responses to various environmental conditions. Brassinosteroids induce NO synthesis through nitrate reductase (NR) and NO synthase (NOS) activities. Arsenite and arsenate, inorganic forms of the metalloid arsenic (As), cause both soil pollution and many disorders in numerous plants, including important crops like rice, due to the oxidative stress generated by the imbalance between RNS and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Rice is very susceptible to As toxicity because both As availability and solubility are high in flooded paddy fields in many cultivated areas. The research aims to investigate the effects of BRs on the rice root systems exposed to 10-4 M Na2HAsO40.7 H2O [As(V)] or 2.5 √ó 10-5 M NaAsO2 [As(III)], highlighting the induced cyto-histological events and dissecting the NO role in the root response. A specific concentration (10-7 M) of 24-epibrassinolide (24-eBL), an exogenously applied BR, increases lateral root (LR) formation of more than 50% in the presence of As(III) or As(V). In addition, eBL attenuates the thickening of the cell walls induced by As in the outermost root cortical layers of LRs and in the adventitious roots (ARs) by reducing of ‚Āď 50% the lignin deposition, while it restores the As(v)-altered NO levels by increasing OsNOS1 expression and the cellular NO distribution

    Extracellular GTP is a Potent Water- Transport Regulator via Aquaporin 5 Plasma-Membrane Insertion in M1-CCD Epithelial Cortical Collecting Duct Cells

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    Background/Aims: Extracellular GTP is able to modulate some specific functions in neuron, glia and muscle cell models as it has been demonstrated over the last two decades. In fact, extracellular GTP binds its specific plasma membrane binding sites and induces signal transduction via [Ca(2+)]i increase. We demonstrate, for the first time, that extracellular GTP is able to modulate cell swelling in M1-CCD cortical collecting duct epithelial cells via upregulation of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression. Methods: We used videoimaging, immunocitochemistry, flow cytometry, confocal techniques, Western blotting and RT-PCR for protein and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: We demonstrate that AQP5 mRNA is up-regulated 7 h after the GTP exposure in the cell culture medium, and its protein level is increased after 12-24 h. We show that AQP5 is targeted to the plasma membrane of M1-CCD cells, where it facilitates cell swelling, and that the GTP-dependent AQP5 up-regulation occurs via [Ca(2+)]i increase. Indeed, GTP induces both oscillating and transient [Ca(2+)]i increase, and specifically the oscillating kinetic appears to be responsible for blocking cell cycle in the S-phase while the [Ca(2+)]i influx, with whatever kinetic, seems to be responsible for inducing AQP5 expression. Conclusion: The role of GTP as a regulator of AQP5-mediated water transport in renal cells is of great importance in the physiology of renal epithelia, due to its possible physiopathological implications. GTP-dependent AQP5 expression could act as osmosensor. In addition, the data presented here suggest that GTP might play the same role in other tissues where rapid water transport is required for cell volume regulation and maintenance of the homeostasis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. ispartof: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry vol:33 issue:3 pages:731-46 ispartof: location:Germany status: publishe

    Tidal notches in Mediterranean Sea: a comprehensive analysis

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    Recent works (Evelpidou et al., 2012) suggest that the modern tidal notch is disappearing worldwide due sea level rise over the last century. In order to assess this hypothesis, we measured modern tidal notches in several of sites along the Mediterranean coasts. We report observations on tidal notches cut along carbonate coasts from 73 sites from Italy, France, Croatia, Montenegro, Greece, Malta and Spain, plus additional observations carried outside the Mediterranean. At each site, we measured notch width and depth, and we described the characteristics of the biological rim at the base of the notch. We correlated these parameters with wave energy, tide gauge datasets and rock lithology. Our results suggest that, considering \u2018the development of tidal notches the consequence of midlittoral bioerosion\u2019 (as done in Evelpidou et al., 2012) is a simplification that can lead to misleading results, such as stating that notches are disappearing. Important roles in notch formation can be also played by wave action, rate of karst dissolution, salt weathering and wetting and drying cycles. Of course notch formation can be augmented and favoured also by bioerosion which can, in particular cases, be the main process of notch formation and development. Our dataset shows that notches are carved by an ensemble rather than by a single process, both today and in the past, and that it is difficult, if not impossible, to disentangle them and establish which one is prevailing. We therefore show that tidal notches are still forming, challenging the hypothesis that sea level rise has drowned them

    Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    The performance of muon reconstruction, identification, and triggering in CMS has been studied using 40 inverse picobarns of data collected in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV at the LHC in 2010. A few benchmark sets of selection criteria covering a wide range of physics analysis needs have been examined. For all considered selections, the efficiency to reconstruct and identify a muon with a transverse momentum pT larger than a few GeV is above 95% over the whole region of pseudorapidity covered by the CMS muon system, abs(eta) < 2.4, while the probability to misidentify a hadron as a muon is well below 1%. The efficiency to trigger on single muons with pT above a few GeV is higher than 90% over the full eta range, and typically substantially better. The overall momentum scale is measured to a precision of 0.2% with muons from Z decays. The transverse momentum resolution varies from 1% to 6% depending on pseudorapidity for muons with pT below 100 GeV and, using cosmic rays, it is shown to be better than 10% in the central region up to pT = 1 TeV. Observed distributions of all quantities are well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DO

    Search for new physics with same-sign isolated dilepton events with jets and missing transverse energy