921 research outputs found

    Discovery of a transient radiation belt at Saturn

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    Radiation belts have been detected in situ at five planets. Only at Earth however has any variability in their intensity been heretofore observed, in indirect response to solar eruptions and high altitude nuclear explosions. The Cassini spacecraft's MIMI/LEMMS instrument has now detected systematic radiation belt variability elsewhere. We report three sudden increases in energetic ion intensity around Saturn, in the vicinity of the moons Dione and Tethys, each lasting for several weeks, in response to interplanetary events caused by solar eruptions. However, the intensifications, which could create temporary satellite atmospheres at the aforementioned moons, were sharply restricted outside the orbit of Tethys. Unlike Earth, Saturn has almost unchanging inner ion radiation belts: due to Saturn's near-symmetrical magnetic field, Tethys and Dione inhibit inward radial transport of energetic ions, shielding the planet's main, inner radiation belt from solar wind influences

    A Two-Player Game of Life

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    We present a new extension of Conway's game of life for two players, which we call p2life. P2life allows one of two types of token, black or white, to inhabit a cell, and adds competitive elements into the birth and survival rules of the original game. We solve the mean-field equation for p2life and determine by simulation that the asymptotic density of p2life approaches 0.0362.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion

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    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (~ −200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator

    Paradoxes in the Management of Timebanks in the UK’s Voluntary Sector: Discursive Bricolage and its Limits

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    This paper contributes to our understanding of volunteer management by charting some important challenges associated with the governance of one of the UK’s largest timebanking networks. While timebanking is often treated as a form of volunteering, many timebank advocates are keen to distinguish it sharply from traditional volunteering. We suggest that this tension generates a fundamental ‘performance paradox’ in the management of timebanks in the voluntary sector. We draw on political discourse theory to characterise and evaluate associated challenges, suggesting that, when viewed against a host of context-specific organisational and policy pressures, the progressive potential of timebanking cannot be realised as a distinct community economy without adequate support. Instead of taking up a position alongside more traditional forms of volunteering, timebanking is more likely to be subsumed by them

    Inconsistent patterns of body size evolution in co-occurring island reptiles

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    Aim Animal body sizes are often remarkably variable across islands, but despite much research we still have a poor understanding of both the patterns and the drivers of body size evolution. Theory predicts that interspecific competition and predation pressures are relaxed on small, remote islands, and that these conditions promote body size evolution. We studied body size variation across multiple insular populations of 16 reptile species co‐occurring in the same archipelago and tested which island characteristics primarily drive body size evolution, the nature of the common patterns, and whether co‐occurring species respond in a similar manner to insular conditions. Location Aegean Sea islands. Time period 1984–2016. Major taxa studied Reptiles. Methods We combined fieldwork, museum measurements and a comprehensive literature survey to collect data on nearly 10,000 individuals, representing eight lizard and eight snake species across 273 islands. We also quantified a large array of predictors to assess directly the effects of island area, isolation (both spatial and temporal), predation and interspecific competition on body size evolution. We used linear models and meta‐analyses to determine which predictors are informative for all reptiles, for lizards and snakes separately, and for each species. Results Body size varies with different predictors across the species we studied, and patterns differ within families and between lizards and snakes. Each predictor influenced body size in at least one species, but no general trend was recovered. As a group, lizards are hardly affected by any of the predictors we tested, whereas snake size generally increases with area and with competitor and predator richness, and decreases with isolation. Main conclusions No factor emerges as a predominant driver of Aegean reptile sizes. This contradicts theories of general body size evolutionary trajectories on islands. We conclude that overarching generalizations oversimplify patterns and processes of reptile body size evolution on islands. Instead, species’ autecology and island particularities interact to drive the course of size evolution

    WTA/TLA: A UAV-captured dataset for semantic segmentation of energy infrastructure

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    Automated inspection of energy infrastructure with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is becoming increasingly important, exhibiting significant advantages over manual inspection, including improved scalability, cost/time effectiveness, and risks reduction. Although recent technological advancements enabled the collection of an abundance of vision data from UAVs’ sensors, significant efforts are still required from experts to interpret manually the collected data and assess the condition of energy infrastructure. Thus, semantic understanding of vision data collected from UAVs during inspection is a critical prerequisite for performing autonomous robotic tasks. However, the lack of labeled data introduces challenges and limitations in evaluating the performance of semantic prediction algorithms. To this end, we release two novel semantic datasets (WTA and TLA) of aerial images captured from power transmission networks and wind turbine farms, collected during real inspection scenarios with UAVs. We also propose modifications to existing state-of-the-art semantic segmentation CNNs to achieve improved trade-off between accuracy and computational complexity. Qualitative and quantitative experiments demonstrate both the challenging properties of the provided dataset and the effectiveness of the proposed networks in this domain.The dataset is available at: https://github.com/gzamps/wta_tla_dataset

    From wellness to medical diagnostic apps: the Parkinson's Disease case

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    This paper presents the design and development of the CloudUPDRS app and supporting system developed as a Class I medical device to assess the severity of motor symptoms for Parkinson’s Disease. We report on lessons learnt towards meeting fidelity and regulatory requirements; effective procedures employed to structure user context and ensure data quality; a robust service provision architecture; a dependable analytics toolkit; and provisions to meet mobility and social needs of people with Parkinson’s

    Dawn‐Dusk Asymmetry in Energetic (>20 keV) Particles Adjacent to Saturn's Magnetopause

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    Energetic particles (>∼25 keV) have been observed routinely in the terrestrial magnetosheath, but have not been well studied at the magnetosheaths of the outer planets. Here we analyze energetic electrons and ions (mostly protons) in the vicinity (±1 RS) of Saturn's magnetopause, using particle data acquired with the low‐energy magnetosphere measurements system, one of the three sensors of the magnetosphere imaging instrument on board the Cassini spacecraft, during a period of ∼14 years (2004–2017). It is found that energetic particles, especially ions, are also common in Saturn's magnetosheath. A clear inward (toward Saturn) gradient in the electron differential flux is identified, suggestive of magnetospheric sources. Such an inward gradient does not appear in some of the ion channels. We conclude that Saturn's magnetopause acts as a porous barrier for energetic electrons and, to a lesser extent, for energetic ions. A dawn‐dusk asymmetry in the gradient of particle flux across the magnetopause is also identified, with a gradual decrease at the dawn and a sharp decrease at the dusk magnetopause. It is also found that magnetic reconnection enhanced flux levels just outside of the magnetopause, with evidence suggesting that these particles are from magnetospheric sources. These findings strongly suggest that Saturn's magnetosphere is most likely the main source of energetic particles in Saturn's magnetosheath and magnetosphere leakage is an important process responsible for the presence of the energetic particles in Saturn's magnetosheath