1,432 research outputs found

    Planck pre-launch status: High Frequency Instrument polarization calibration

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    The High Frequency Instrument of Planck will map the entire sky in the millimeter and sub-millimeter domain from 100 to 857 GHz with unprecedented sensitivity to polarization (ΔP/T_(cmb) ~ 4 × 10^(-6) for P either Q or U and T_(cmb) ≃ 2.7 K) at 100, 143, 217 and 353 GHz. It will lead to major improvements in our understanding of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and polarized foreground signals. Planck will make high resolution measurements of the E-mode spectrum (up to l ~ 1500) and will also play a prominent role in the search for the faint imprint of primordial gravitational waves on the CMB polarization. This paper addresses the effects of calibration of both temperature (gain) and polarization (polarization efficiency and detector orientation) on polarization measurements. The specific requirements on the polarization parameters of the instrument are set and we report on their pre-flight measurement on HFI bolometers. We present a semi-analytical method that exactly accounts for the scanning strategy of the instrument as well as the combination of different detectors. We use this method to propagate errors through to the CMB angular power spectra in the particular case of Planck-HFI, and to derive constraints on polarization parameters. We show that in order to limit the systematic error to 10% of the cosmic variance of the E-mode power spectrum, uncertainties in gain, polarization efficiency and detector orientation must be below 0.15%, 0.3% and 1° respectively. Pre-launch ground measurements reported in this paper already fulfill these requirements

    Precise measurement of CMB polarisation from Dome-C: the BRAIN and CLOVER experiments

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    SF2A-2004: Semaine de l'Astrophysique Francaise, meeting held in Paris, France, June 14-18, 2004.The characterisation of CMB polarisation is one of the next challenge in observationnal cosmology. This is especially true for the so-called B-modes that are at least 3 order of magnitude lower than CMB temperature fluctuations. A precise measurement of the angular power spectrum of these B-modes will give important constraints on inflation parameters. In this talk, I will describe two complementary experiments, BRAIN and CLOVER, dedicated to CMB polarisation measurement. These experiments are proposed to be installed in Dome-C, Antarctica, to take advantage of the extreme dryness of the atmosphere and to allow long integration time

    Sensitivity of a Bolometric Interferometer to the CMB power spectrum

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    Context. The search for B-mode polarization fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background is one of the main challenges of modern cosmology. The expected level of the B-mode signal is very low and therefore requires the development of highly sensitive instruments with low systematic errors. An appealing possibility is bolometric interferometry. Aims. We compare in this article the sensitivity on the CMB angular power spectrum achieved with direct imaging, heterodyne and bolometric interferometry. Methods. Using a simple power spectrum estimator, we calculate its variance leading to the counterpart for bolometric interferometry of the well known Knox formula for direct imaging. Results. We find that bolometric interferometry is less sensitive than direct imaging. However, as expected, it is finally more sensitive than heterodyne interferometry due to the low noise of the bolometers. It therefore appears as an alternative to direct imagers with different and possibly lower systematic errors, mainly due to the absence of an optical setup in front of the horns.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures. This last version matches the published version (Astronomy and Astrophysics 491 3 (2008) 923-927). Sensitivity of Heterodyne Interferometers modified by a factor of tw

    Numerical Modeling for the Study of Ozone Transport in Sea-Breeze Circulations at Stax (Tunisia)

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    From WIS.2 to Smart Forest – a sustainable forest management decision support system

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    WIS.2 is a DSS for monitoring and implementing the goal-oriented and sustainable management of forest ecosystems, especially with regard to the integral management of significant spatial and temporal scales in forest ecosystems. WIS.2 considers multiple ecosystem goods and services in silvicultural management and the implementation of silvicultural interventions, which are in accordance with the Swiss silvicultural tradition. WIS.2 takes a top-down approach, starting with the entrepreneurial strategy, and ending at short and mid-term interventions at stand level. WIS.2 structures the overall decision process across multiple scales and provides decision support for each decision to be taken by organizing and connecting available data and models. WIS.2 is based on MS Access and ArcGIS View and is composed of different applications, each handling a main aspect of the management of forest ecosystems. The tool is used at the level of higher education in forest management in Switzerland. WIS.2, initially developed during 2001-2005 within the framework of a PhD thesis at the ETH in Zurich (Rosset 2005a), has been successively improved through practical use in more than 10 case studies in five Swiss Cantons. The main challenge is now to advance from a prototype to an easily available consolidated IT product

    A simple modeling approach to study the regional impact of a Mediterranean forest isoprene emission on anthropogenic plumes

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    Research during the past decades has outlined the importance of biogenic isoprene emission in tropospheric chemistry and regional ozone photo-oxidant pollution. The first part of this article focuses on the development and validation of a simple biogenic emission scheme designed for regional studies. Experimental data sets relative to Boreal, Tropical, Temperate and Mediterranean ecosystems are used to estimate the robustness of the scheme at the canopy scale, and over contrasted climatic and ecological conditions. A good agreement is generally found when comparing field measurements and simulated emission fluxes, encouraging us to consider the model suitable for regional application. Limitations of the scheme are nevertheless outlined as well as further on-going improvements. In the second part of the article, the emission scheme is used on line in the broader context of a meso-scale atmospheric chemistry model. Dynamically idealized simulations are carried out to study the chemical interactions of pollutant plumes with realistic isoprene emissions coming from a Mediterranean oak forest. Two types of anthropogenic sources, respectively representative of the Marseille (urban) and Martigues (industrial) French Mediterranean sites, and both characterized by different VOC/NOx are considered. For the Marseille scenario, the impact of biogenic emission on ozone production is larger when the forest is situated in a sub-urban configuration (i.e.&nbsp;downwind distance TOWN-FOREST <30km, considering an advection velocity of 4.2 m.s<sup>-1</sup>). In this case the enhancement of ozone production due to isoprene can reach +37% in term of maximum surface concentrations and +11% in term of total ozone production. The impact of biogenic emission decreases quite rapidly when the TOWN-FOREST distance increases. For the Martigues scenario, the biogenic impact on the plume is significant up to TOWN-FOREST distance of 90km where the ozone maximum surface concentration enhancement can still reach +30%. For both cases, the importance of the VOC/NO<sub>x</sub> ratio in the anthropogenic plume and its evolution when interacting with the forest emission are outlined. In complement to real case studies, this idealized approach can be particularly useful for process and sensitivity studies and constitutes a valuable tool to build regional ozone control strategies

    Psychological predictor variables of emotional maladjustment in infertility: Analysis of the moderating role of gender

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    AbstractThe objective of this study is to find out if the variables state-anxiety, trait-anxiety, positive-affect, negative-affect, alexithymia, and adaptive (personal and interpersonal) resources can predict emotional maladjustment in infertile people, taking into account the potentially moderating role of gender. A sample of 101 participants with an infertility diagnosis (51 males and 50 females) completed a battery of psychological tests (DERA, Emotional Maladjustment and Adaptive Resources in Infertility questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI], PANAS, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and TAS-20, [Toronto Alexithymia Scale]). The moderating, partial, and interactive effects of the variables were analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. The resulting model explained 71.1% of total variance, resulting in gender as an important moderating variable and trait anxiety, state anxiety, negative affect, and low interpersonal resources as strong predictors of emotional maladjustment in infertile people. These results provide guidance in selecting the most appropriate psychological support and treatment for the emotional adjustment of infertile women and men
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