2,336 research outputs found

    When facial expressions do and do not signal minds: the role of face inversion, expression dynamism, and emotion type

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    Recent research has linked facial expressions to mind perception. Specifically, Bowling and Banissy (2017) found that ambiguous doll-human morphs were judged as more likely to have a mind when smiling. Herein, we investigate three key potential boundary conditions of this “expression-to-mind” effect. First, we demonstrate that face inversion impairs the ability of happy expressions to signal mindful states in static faces; however, inversion does not disrupt this effect for dynamic displays of emotion. Finally, we demonstrate that not all emotions have equivalent effects. Whereas happy faces generate more mind ascription compared to neutral faces, we find that expressions of disgust actually generate less mind ascription than those of happiness

    Synchronization of coupled neural oscillators with heterogeneous delays

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    We investigate the effects of heterogeneous delays in the coupling of two excitable neural systems. Depending upon the coupling strengths and the time delays in the mutual and self-coupling, the compound system exhibits different types of synchronized oscillations of variable period. We analyze this synchronization based on the interplay of the different time delays and support the numerical results by analytical findings. In addition, we elaborate on bursting-like dynamics with two competing timescales on the basis of the autocorrelation function.Comment: 18 pages, 14 figure

    Excitability in autonomous Boolean networks

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    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that excitable systems can be built with autonomous Boolean networks. Their experimental implementation is realized with asynchronous logic gates on a reconfigurabe chip. When these excitable systems are assembled into time-delay networks, their dynamics display nanosecond time-scale spike synchronization patterns that are controllable in period and phase.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, accepted in Europhysics Letters (epljournal.edpsciences.org

    The multi-modal nature of trustworthiness perception

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    Most past work on trustworthiness perception has focused on the structural features of the human face. The present study investigates the interplay of dynamic information from two channels – the face and the voice. By systematically varying the level of trustworthiness in each channel, 49 participants were presented with either facial or vocal information, or the combination of both, and made explicit judgements with respect to trustworthiness, dominance, and emotional valence. For most measures results revealed a primacy effect of facial over vocal cues. In examining the exact nature of the trustworthiness - emotion link we further found that emotional valence functioned as a significant mediator in impressions of trustworthiness. The findings extend previous correlational evidence and provide important knowledge of how trustworthiness in its dynamic and multi-modal form is decoded by the human perceiver. Index Terms: trustworthiness, face, voice, emotion, dynamic, multi-moda

    Speeding up Simplification of Polygonal Curves using Nested Approximations

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    We develop a multiresolution approach to the problem of polygonal curve approximation. We show theoretically and experimentally that, if the simplification algorithm A used between any two successive levels of resolution satisfies some conditions, the multiresolution algorithm MR will have a complexity lower than the complexity of A. In particular, we show that if A has a O(N2/K) complexity (the complexity of a reduced search dynamic solution approach), where N and K are respectively the initial and the final number of segments, the complexity of MR is in O(N).We experimentally compare the outcomes of MR with those of the optimal "full search" dynamic programming solution and of classical merge and split approaches. The experimental evaluations confirm the theoretical derivations and show that the proposed approach evaluated on 2D coastal maps either shows a lower complexity or provides polygonal approximations closer to the initial curves.Comment: 12 pages + figure

    Frequency of neurolopsychological deficits after traumatic brain injury

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    El traumatismo craneoencefálico (TCE) puede conllevar impactantes cambios en la vida cotidiana, que incluyen alteraciones a nivel social, profesional, comunicativo y cognitivo (dificultades atencionales, mnemónicas y ejecutivas). Este estudio tuvo por objeto caracterizar la ocurrencia de déficits neuropsicológicos post-TCE y constatar el impacto ocasionado por el nivel de severidad del trauma en el desempeño cognitivo de los pacientes. Participaron 96 adultos en la muestra total, que fue dividida en dos grupos para evaluar el nivel de severidad del trauma: TCE leve (n=39) y TCE grave (n=77). La gravedad de la lesión se clasificó por medio de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, por la duración de la pérdida de consciencia, o por la amnesia post-traumática. No había diferencias entre la edad y la escolaridad de los participantes. Para la comparación entre los grupos en cuanto a la distribución de ocurrencia de déficits neuropsicológicos, se utilizó el Chi-cuadrado. Se utilizó una batería de evaluación neuropsicológica flexible conformada por tareas verbales y visoespaciales de habilidades lingüísticas, mnemónicas y ejecutivas. Los grupos no se diferenciaron en cuanto a las variables sociodemográficas. Los pacientes con TCE leve tuvieron mejores puntajes comparados con los de TCE grave (número de errores y categorías completadas del Test de clasificación de tarjetas de Wisconsin- [WCST, por sus siglas en inglés]; errores en la parte B del Test de Hayling; y en la interferencia retro y proactiva del Test de aprendizaje auditivo verbal de Rey [RAVLT, por sus siglas en inglés]. El nivel de severidad del trauma parece mostrar diferencias en los individuos en cuanto al desempeño en memoria episódica de información nueva y en el control de interferencia entre los recuerdos; lo mismo se aplica a las funciones de flexibilidad e inhibición. Estos resultados sugieren que es necesaria una mayor inversión en acciones de políticas públicas, priorizando intervenciones neurocognitivas reeducativas y métodos de prevención de accidentes relacionados con lesiones traumáticas que tengan alta incidencia de secuelas.El traumatismo craneoencefálico (TCE) puede conllevar impactantes cambios en la vida cotidiana, que incluyen alteraciones a nivel social, profesional, comunicativo y cognitivo (dificultades atencionales, mnemónicas y ejecutivas). Este estudio tuvo por objeto caracterizar la ocurrencia de déficits neuropsicológicos post-TCE y constatar el impacto ocasionado por el nivel de severidad del trauma en el desempeño cognitivo de los pacientes. Participaron 96 adultos en la muestra total, que fue dividida en dos grupos para evaluar el nivel de severidad del trauma: TCE leve (n=39) y TCE grave (n=77). La gravedad de la lesión se clasificó por medio de la Escala de Coma de Glasgow, por la duración de la pérdida de consciencia, o por la amnesia post-traumática. No había diferencias entre la edad y la escolaridad de los participantes. Para la comparación entre los grupos en cuanto a la distribución de ocurrencia de déficits neuropsicológicos, se utilizó el Chi-cuadrado. Se utilizó una batería de evaluación neuropsicológica flexible conformada por tareas verbales y visoespaciales de habilidades lingüísticas, mnemónicas y ejecutivas. Los grupos no se diferenciaron en cuanto a las variables sociodemográficas. Los pacientes con TCE leve tuvieron mejores puntajes comparados con los de TCE grave (número de errores y categorías completadas del Test de clasificación de tarjetas de Wisconsin- [WCST, por sus siglas en inglés]; errores en la parte B del Test de Hayling; y en la interferencia retro y proactiva del Test de aprendizaje auditivo verbal de Rey [RAVLT, por sus siglas en inglés]. El nivel de severidad del trauma parece mostrar diferencias en los individuos en cuanto al desempeño en memoria episódica de información nueva y en el control de interferencia entre los recuerdos; lo mismo se aplica a las funciones de flexibilidad e inhibición. Estos resultados sugieren que es necesaria una mayor inversión en acciones de políticas públicas, priorizando intervenciones neurocognitivas reeducativas y métodos de prevención de accidentes relacionados con lesiones traumáticas que tengan alta incidencia de secuelas.Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to significant changes in daily life, as well as in social, labor, communicative, and cognitive domains (attention, memory and executive functions). This study aimed to characterize the occurrence of post-TBI neuropsychological deficits as well as to determine whether there is an impact related to the level of severity of the trauma on the patient's performance. Ninety-six adults participated in the study, who were divided in two groups to assess the trauma's level of severity: mild TBI (n=39) and severe TBI (n=57). This severity was classified by the Glasgow Coma Scale, by the duration of consciousness loss, or by post-traumatic amnesia. There were no differences between the groups regarding variables of age and years of schooling. A Chi- square test was used to do a comparison between the two groups in terms of occurrence of neuropsychological deficits. Verbal, visuospatial, mnemonic, linguistic and executive tests composed a flexible neuropsychological battery. Patients with mild TBI had better scores compared to those with severe TBI (number of errors and in completed categories of the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MWCST); errors in Part B of The Hayling Test; and proactive and retroactive interference in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The severity of the trauma seems to differentiate individual's performance on episodic memory of new information and in the control of interference between memories; the same is applied to flexibility and inhibition functions. These results suggest the need for more investments in public health policy actions, prioritizing neurocognitive remedial intervention and prevention methods for such condition with high incidence of sequelae

    Possible Treatment of Parkinson's Disease with Intrathecal Medication in the MPTP Model

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/73916/1/j.1749-6632.1988.tb31828.x.pd

    Brief of Amici Curiae Michael L. Rosin, David G. Post, David F. Forte, Michael Stokes Paulsen, and Sotirios Barber in Support of Presidential Electors

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    The Framers of the Constitution crafted the Electoral College to be an independent institution with the responsibility of selecting the President and Vice-President. Therefore, they intended each elector to exercise independent judgment in deciding whom to vote for. A state cannot revise the Constitution unilaterally by reducing the elector to a ministerial agent who must vote in a particular way or face a sanction. The question of each elector’s moral or political obligation is not before the Court. Nor is the desirability of the current electoral system. Rather, this case turns on what the Constitution allows, and what it prohibits. The historical record strongly supports the notion that the Constitution allows an elector to exercise independent judgment and prohibits a State from interfering with an elector’s ability to do so—a position Congress has consistently reaffirmed. This robust historical record supports only one conclusion: Our constitutional framework allows each elector to vote as he or she chooses

    Application of the Fisher-Rao metric to ellipse detection

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    The parameter space for the ellipses in a two dimensional image is a five dimensional manifold, where each point of the manifold corresponds to an ellipse in the image. The parameter space becomes a Riemannian manifold under a Fisher-Rao metric, which is derived from a Gaussian model for the blurring of ellipses in the image. Two points in the parameter space are close together under the Fisher-Rao metric if the corresponding ellipses are close together in the image. The Fisher-Rao metric is accurately approximated by a simpler metric under the assumption that the blurring is small compared with the sizes of the ellipses under consideration. It is shown that the parameter space for the ellipses in the image has a finite volume under the approximation to the Fisher-Rao metric. As a consequence the parameter space can be replaced, for the purpose of ellipse detection, by a finite set of points sampled from it. An efficient algorithm for sampling the parameter space is described. The algorithm uses the fact that the approximating metric is flat, and therefore locally Euclidean, on each three dimensional family of ellipses with a fixed orientation and a fixed eccentricity. Once the sample points have been obtained, ellipses are detected in a given image by checking each sample point in turn to see if the corresponding ellipse is supported by the nearby image pixel values. The resulting algorithm for ellipse detection is implemented. A multiresolution version of the algorithm is also implemented. The experimental results suggest that ellipses can be reliably detected in a given low resolution image and that the number of false detections can be reduced using the multiresolution algorithm

    A pitfall in the reconstruction of fibre ODFs using spherical deconvolution of diffusion MRI data

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    Diffusion weighted ( DW ) MRI facilitates non-invasive quantification of tissue microstructure and, in combination with appropriate signal processing, three-dimensional estimates of fibrous orientation. In recent years, attention has shifted from the diffusion tensor model, which assumes a unimodal Gaussian diffusion displacement profile to recover fibre orientation ( with various well-documented limitations ), towards more complex high angular resolution diffusion imaging ( HARDI ) analysis techniques. Spherical deconvolution ( SD ) approaches assume that the fibre orientation density function ( fODF ) within a voxel can be obtained by deconvolving a ‘common’ single fibre response function from the observed set of DW signals. In practice, this common response function is not known a priori and thus an estimated fibre response must be used. Here the establishment of this single-fibre response function is referred to as ‘calibration’. This work examines the vulnerability of two different SD approaches to inappropriate response function calibration: ( 1 ) constrained spherical harmonic deconvolution ( CSHD )—a technique that exploits spherical harmonic basis sets and ( 2 ) damped Richardson–Lucy ( dRL ) deconvolution—a technique based on the standard Richardson–Lucy deconvolution. Through simulations, the impact of a discrepancy between the calibrated diffusion profiles and the observed ( ‘Target’ ) DW-signals in both single and crossing-fibre configurations was investigated. The results show that CSHD produces spurious fODF peaks ( consistent with well known ringing artefacts ) as the discrepancy between calibration and target response increases, while dRL demonstrates a lower over-all sensitivity to miscalibration ( with a calibration response function for a highly anisotropic fibre being optimal ). However, dRL demonstrates a reduced ability to resolve low anisotropy crossing-fibres compared to CSHD. It is concluded that the range and spatial-distribution of expected single-fibre anisotropies within an image must be carefully considered to ensure selection of the appropriate algorithm, parameters and calibration. Failure to choose the calibration response function carefully may severely impact the quality of any resultant tractography
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