351 research outputs found

    Complex regional pain syndrome: diagnosis and management

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    Complex regional pain syndrome is a rare and not well understood chronic pain condition that can affect anyone, irrespective of age and sex. It is important that nurses and the wider healthcare team are aware of the symptoms and recommended management of this condition, with timely diagnosis and appropriate rehabilitation being particularly important. This article provides an overview of complex regional pain syndrome and explains what is involved in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Understanding the complexity of the condition and the relevant management guidelines will enable nurses to provide effective care and support for patients

    Associations between behaviours that challenge in adults with intellectual disability, parent perceptions and parental mental health

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    Objectives. This study examined parental perceptions of behaviours that challenge (CB) in their adult children with intellectual disability (ID), and explored whether perceptions mediated associations between CB and parental psychological distress. Design. A within-group correlational design was employed. Methods. Sixty-five parents reported on individuals with genetic syndromes and ID who had chronic behaviours that challenge (CB). Parents completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) adapted to measure perceptions of self-injury, aggression or property destruction, alongside assessments of parental locus of control, attributions about behaviour, parental psychological distress, and CB. Results. A high proportion of parents evidenced anxiety and depression at clinically significant levels (56.9% and 30.8%, respectively). Contrary to predictions, psychological distress was not significantly associated with CB. The perception that the adult with ID exerted control over the parent’s life mediated the association between CB and parental psychological distress. Few parents endorsed operant reinforcement as a cause of CB (< 10%). Conclusions. The high levels of psychological distress in parents is notable and of concern. Further research should consider the reasons why parents have causal attributions that might be inconsistent with contemporary interventions. Key words: Adults; parents; attributions; self-regulatory model; challenging behaviour; intellectual disability

    Toxicity screening of two prevalent metal organic frameworks for therapeutic use in human lung epithelial cells

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    Introduction: The flexibility and tunability of metal organic frameworks (MOFs), crystal- line porous materials composed of a network of metal ions coordinated by organic ligands, confer their variety of applications as drug delivery systems or as sensing and imaging agents. However, such properties also add to the difficulty in ensuring their safe implementa- tion when interaction with biological systems is considered. Methods: In the current study, we used real-time sensorial strategies and cellular-based approaches to allow for fast and effective screening of two MOFs of prevalent use, namely, MIL-160 representative of a hydrophilic and ZIF-8 representative of a hydrophobic frame- work. The two MOFs were synthesized “in house” and exposed to human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells, a pertinent toxicological screening model. Results: Analysis allowed evaluation and differentiation of particle-induced cellular effects as well identification of different degrees and routes of toxicity, all in a high-throughput manner. Our results show the importance of performing screening toxicity assessments before introducing MOFs to biomedical applications. Discussion: Our proposed screening assays could be extended to a wider variety of cell lines to allow for identification of any deleterious effects of MOFs, with the range of toxic mechanisms to be differentiated based on cell viability, morphology and cell–substrate interactions, respectively. Conclusion: Our analysis highlights the importance of considering the physicochemical properties of MOFs when recommending a MOF-based therapeutic option or MOFs imple- mentation in biomedical applications

    Meta-transcriptomic discovery of a divergent circovirus and a chaphamaparvovirus in captive reptiles with proliferative respiratory syndrome

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    Viral pathogens are being increasingly described in association with mass morbidity and mortality events in reptiles. However, our knowledge of reptile viruses remains limited. Herein, we describe the meta-transcriptomic investigation of a mass morbidity and mortality event in a colony of central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) in 2014. Severe, extensive proliferation of the respiratory epithelium was consistently found in affected dragons. Similar proliferative lung lesions were identified in bearded dragons from the same colony in 2020 in association with increased intermittent mortality. Total RNA sequencing identified two divergent DNA viruses: a reptile-infecting circovirus, denoted bearded dragon circovirus (BDCV), and the first exogeneous reptilian chaphamaparvovirus—bearded dragon chaphamaparvovirus (BDchPV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BDCV was most closely related to bat-associated circoviruses, exhibiting 70% amino acid sequence identity in the Replicase (Rep) protein. In contrast, in the nonstructural (NS) protein, the newly discovered BDchPV showed approximately 31%–35% identity to parvoviruses obtained from tilapia fish and crocodiles in China. Subsequent specific PCR assays revealed BDCV and BDchPV in both diseased and apparently normal captive reptiles, although only BDCV was found in those animals with proliferative pulmonary lesions and respiratory disease. This study expands our understanding of viral diversity in captive reptiles

    Domain-based perceptions of risk:a case study of lay and technical community attitudes towards managed aquifer recharge

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    Despite growing water scarcity, communities in many parts of the developed world often reject technically and economically sound options for water augmentation. This paper reports findings from a study investigating risk perceptions associated with a proposed Managed Aquifer Recharge scheme in Australia. Q-Methodology was used to compare decision-making frameworks of lay community and „technical expert‟ participants. Technical expert participants were also asked to approximate the decision-making framework of a „typical‟ community member. The emerging contrasts between lay community frameworks and those approximated by technical experts suggest that there are prevailing yet errant assumptions about lay community attitudes towards new technologies. The findings challenge the characterisation of the lay community and technical experts as being in entrenched opposition with one another

    S-Matrix Approach to the ZZ Line Shape

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    We analyze the ZZ line shape assuming the existence of an analytic, unitary S-matrix. As an example, from hadron production at LEP we determine MZ=91.134±0.020±0.020(LEP)M_{Z}=91.134 \pm 0.020 \pm 0.020 \: ({\rm LEP}) GeV, ΓZ=2.506±0.018\Gamma_{Z}=2.506 \pm 0.018 GeV. This is in accordance with earlier results after performing a shift of the ZZ mass value of about 12ΓZ2/MZ=34\frac{1}{2}\Gamma_Z^2/M_Z = 34 MeV. The cross section and related observables may be described by a small number of additional degrees of freedom without relying on a specific field-theoretic model.Comment: 9 pages, LaTex, 1 table, a uuencoded file containing the latex file is available at ftp://ftp.ifh.de/pub/preprint/desy91-111.uu Note: paper published in Phys. Lett. B273 (1991) 51

    Work motivation and organizational citizenship behavior of employees

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    Over the past years, many hospitals in developing countries face intense demand for maintaining and improving work motivation and the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of their employees to become more productive and to develop increased job satisfaction. As such, the researchers assessed the relationship between the work motivation in terms of commitment, passion, involvement, contentment, goals, excellence and team work; and organizational citizenship behavior among hospital employees in a level I hospital in Region XII, Philippines. The study used a descriptive-correlation research design. It utilized the motivation checklist and the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Checklist (OCB-C).&nbsp; As revealed, the overall level of work motivation of the employees was very high. The employees had very high level of work passion, involvement, contentment, teamwork and goals, where as, excellence and commitment were high levels. The overall level of organizational citizenship behavior of the employees was very good. There was also a significant correlation between the variables. Therefore, work motivation and organizational citizenship behavior of hospital employees affect each other. Thus, the findings supported the SelfDetermination Theory (SDT) and the Social Exchange Theory

    Regulatory institutional distance and MNCs' subsidiary performance: climbing up Vs. climbing down the institutional ladder

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    We investigate the possibility of regulatory institutional distance exerting an asymmetric effect on multinational corporations' (MNCs') subsidiary performance depending on the direction of institutional distance. We use the term ‘institutional ladder’ to differentiate between upward distance, referred to as when the subsidiary is operating in a relatively stronger institutional environment than its parent-firm's home country, and downward distance for vice versa. Combining institutional theory with organisational imprinting and learning perspectives, we argue that the implications of regulatory institutional distance on subsidiary performance are relatively more positive (or less negative) when MNCs are climbing down the institutional ladder as compared to when MNCs are climbing up the institutional ladder. We also argue that subsidiary ownership strategy – i.e. the choice of a wholly owned subsidiary (WOS) versus joint venture (JV) – moderates the above-mentioned implications of institutional distance on subsidiary performance. We test these hypotheses based on a panel data-set of 1936 foreign subsidiaries representing 70 host countries and 66 home countries and spanning the 12-year period: 2002–2013

    Cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic characterization of the prefrontal cortical areas in the mouse

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    This study describes cytoarchitectonic criteria to define the prefrontal cortical areas in the mouse brain (C57BL/6 strain). Currently, well-illustrated mouse brain stereotaxic atlases are available, which, however, do not provide a description of the distinctive cytoarchitectonic characteristics of individual prefrontal areas. Such a description is of importance for stereological, neuronal tracing, and physiological, molecular and neuroimaging studies in which a precise parcellation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is required. The present study describes and illustrates: the medial prefrontal areas, i.e., the infralimbic, prelimbic, dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate and Fr2 area; areas of the lateral PFC, i.e., the dorsal agranular insular cortical areas and areas of the ventral PFC, i.e., the lateral, ventrolateral, ventral and medial orbital areas. Each cytoarchitectonically defined boundary is corroborated by one or more chemoarchitectonic stainings, i.e., acetylcholine esterase, SMI32, SMI311, dopamine, parvalbumin, calbindin and myelin staining
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