574 research outputs found

    A triple-GEM telescope for the TOTEM experiment

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    The TOTEM experiment at LHC has chosen the triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for its T2 telescope which will provide charged track reconstruction in the rapidity range 5.3<|eta|<6.5 and a fully inclusive trigger for diffractive events. GEMs are gas-filled detectors that have the advantageous decoupling of the charge amplification structure from the charge collection and readout structure. Furthermore, they combine good spatial resolution with very high rate capability and a good resistance to radiation. Results from a detailed T2 GEM simulation and from laboratory tests on a final design detector performed at CERN are presented.Comment: To appear in the proceedings of 10th Topical Seminar on Innovative Particle and Radiation Detectors (IPRD06), Siena, Italy, October 1-5 200

    Effects of High Charge Densities in Multi-GEM Detectors

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    A comprehensive study, supported by systematic measurements and numerical computations, of the intrinsic limits of multi-GEM detectors when exposed to very high particle fluxes or operated at very large gains is presented. The observed variations of the gain, of the ion back-flow, and of the pulse height spectra are explained in terms of the effects of the spatial distribution of positive ions and their movement throughout the amplification structure. The intrinsic dynamic character of the processes involved imposes the use of a non-standard simulation tool for the interpretation of the measurements. Computations done with a Finite Element Analysis software reproduce the observed behaviour of the detector. The impact of this detailed description of the detector in extreme conditions is multiple: it clarifies some detector behaviours already observed, it helps in defining intrinsic limits of the GEM technology, and it suggests ways to extend them.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figures, 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposiu

    Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

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    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.Comment: 2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference with the 21st Symposium on Room-Temperature Semiconductor X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors, 4 pages, 8 figure

    The virtual cathode chamber

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    We describe the operating principle and the first experimental results obtained with gas micro-strip detectors realized with anodes only on the active side, the multiplying field being provided from the back-plane and drift electrodes. For high rate operation, the detector has to be implemented on electron conducting supports, with resistivity around 1011Ω^{11}\Omega cm. By construction, the ³Virtual Cathode Chamber² is not subjected to the possibility of discharges between anodes and cathodes, thus avoiding one of the most dangerous problems met with standard micro-strip chambers

    Development and applications of the Gas Electron Multiplier

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    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) has been recently developed to cope with the severe requirements of high luminosity particle physics experimentation. With excellent position accuracy and very high rate capability, GEM devices are robust and easy to manufacture. The possibility of cascading two or more multipliers permits to achieve larger gains and more stable operation. We discuss major performances of the new detectors, particularly in view of possible use for high rate portal imaging and medical diagnostics

    Charge carrier transfer in the gas electron multiplier at low gas gains

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    Connected to the Linear Collider project TESLA at DESY, studies on the readout of TPCs based on the GEM-technology are ongoing. For particle identication via dE/dx - measurement, a good energy resolution is indispensable, and therefore losses of primary electrons have to be avoided. It turned out, that in the GEM transverse diffusion inside or close to the holes is a not negligible reason for these losses. For Ar-CH4 90:10 and TPC-like field configurations it was found, that when operated in normal amplification mode, the Standard Geometry GEM should not lose primaries, whereas for low gains, also when operated in magnetic fields up to 5T, a GEM with larger pitch and hole diameter would be necessary

    Observation of strong wavelength-shifting in the argon-tetrafluoromethane system

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    We report the scintillation spectra of Ar-CF4_4 mixtures in the range 210-800~nm, obtained under X-ray irradiation for various pressures (1-5~bar) and concentrations (0-100%). Special care was taken to eliminate effects related to space charge and recombination, so that results can be extrapolated following conventional wisdom to those expected for minimum ionizing particles under the typical electric fields employed in gaseous instrumentation. Our study sheds light into the microscopic pathways leading to scintillation in this family of mixtures.Comment: Updated to match current journal submissio
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