391 research outputs found

    DataSheet1_Cannabis sativa L. alleviates loperamide-induced constipation by modulating the composition of gut microbiota in mice.PDF

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    MaZiRenWan (MZRW) is the most frequently used Traditional Chinese Medicine formula to treat chronic constipation, Cannabis sativa L. is regarded as a monarch drug in MZRW. However, the targets of Cannabis sativa L. that enhance colonic motility and improve constipation symptoms remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate the laxative effect and underlying mechanism of the water extract of Cannabis sativa L. (WECSL) using a loperamide-induced constipation mouse model. We found that WECSL treatment significantly improved intestinal motility and water-electrolyte metabolism, decreased inflammatory responses, prevented gut barrier damage, and relieved anxiety and depression in constipated mice. WECSL also structurally remodeled the composition of the gut microbiota and altered the abundance of bacteria related to inflammation, specifically Butyricicoccus and Parasutterella. Moreover, WECSL failed to relieve constipation symptoms following intestinal flora depletion, indicating that WECSL alleviates constipation symptoms depending on the gut microbiota. Our research provides a basis for WECSL to be further investigated in the treatment of constipation from the perspective of modern medicine.</p

    Gene expression of CNTF, CT1, OsM, LIF and their receptors in hfRPE.

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    <p>Relative amounts of messenger RNA were quantified using real time PCR. All data normalized to GAPDH = 10<sup>6</sup>. Experiments were performed in triplicate using cells from four different donors.</p

    Table1_Cannabis sativa L. alleviates loperamide-induced constipation by modulating the composition of gut microbiota in mice.DOCX

    No full text
    MaZiRenWan (MZRW) is the most frequently used Traditional Chinese Medicine formula to treat chronic constipation, Cannabis sativa L. is regarded as a monarch drug in MZRW. However, the targets of Cannabis sativa L. that enhance colonic motility and improve constipation symptoms remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate the laxative effect and underlying mechanism of the water extract of Cannabis sativa L. (WECSL) using a loperamide-induced constipation mouse model. We found that WECSL treatment significantly improved intestinal motility and water-electrolyte metabolism, decreased inflammatory responses, prevented gut barrier damage, and relieved anxiety and depression in constipated mice. WECSL also structurally remodeled the composition of the gut microbiota and altered the abundance of bacteria related to inflammation, specifically Butyricicoccus and Parasutterella. Moreover, WECSL failed to relieve constipation symptoms following intestinal flora depletion, indicating that WECSL alleviates constipation symptoms depending on the gut microbiota. Our research provides a basis for WECSL to be further investigated in the treatment of constipation from the perspective of modern medicine.</p

    Multifunctional Hollow–Shell Microspheres Derived from Cross-Linking of MnO<sub>2</sub> Nanoneedles by Zirconium-Based Coordination Polymer: Enzyme Mimicking, Micromotors, and Protein Immobilization

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    MnO<sub>2</sub> microspheres were prepared with nanoneedles vertically growing on their surfaces. The MnO<sub>2</sub> microspheres were used as templates for the growth of zirconium-based coordination polymer (Zr-CP)/metal–organic-framework, which was synthesized by coordination between Zr­(IV) ions and 2-methylimidazole in methanol at room temperature. The nanoneedles were enwrapped by Zr-CP, and the bases of the MnO<sub>2</sub> nanoneedles were cross-linked with Zr-CP. Etching of the core MnO<sub>2</sub> produced a hollow–shell structure <i>h</i>-MnO<sub>2</sub>@Zr-CP. The shell, consisting of a loose outer layer and a dense inner layer, possesses oxidase- and catalase-like activities. <i>h</i>-MnO<sub>2</sub>@Zr-CP can work as a micromotor with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> as the fuel. Hexahistidine-tagged enzymes can be selectively and strongly absorbed onto the hollow–shell microspheres with a large capacity by taking advantage of the coordinative interactions between the hexahistidine-tags and Zr-CP. d-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) was immobilized on the hollow–shell microspheres, and the conjugate DAAO/<i>h</i>-MnO<sub>2</sub>@Zr-CP mimicked two-enzyme catalysis, achieving a catalysis efficiency 225% times that of free DAAO. <i>R</i>-ω-Transaminase (RTA) and DAAO were coimmobilized on the hollow–shell microspheres, and the conjugate RTA/DAAO/<i>h</i>-MnO<sub>2</sub>@Zr-CP mimicked three-enzyme catalysis. For converting (<i>R</i>)-1-phenylethylamine and (<i>R</i>)-1-aminoindan to corresponding ketones, RTA/DAAO/<i>h</i>-MnO<sub>2</sub>@Zr-CP achieved the conversions 99 and 95%, respectively, in contrast to corresponding conversions 48.6 and 32.3% by the mixed free enzymes RTA+DAAO. Potentially, the hollow–shell microspheres can be applied to immobilize other enzymes to establish multienzyme systems

    Immunofluorescence localization of CNTF, CT1, OsM receptors on hfRPE.

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    <p>Central part of each panel is an <i>enface</i> view of cell culture monolayer, shown as a single optical section obtained from a Z-stack. Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue) and ZO-1 tight junction marker stained green. Images of the cross section through the Z-plane are shown at the top of each panel. CNTFRα (A, red), LIFRβ (B, red), gp130 (C, red) and OsMRβ (D, red) were detected mainly on the apical membrane of confluent monolayer of hfRPE.</p

    Sound Absorption Properties of Microporous Poly(vinyl formal) Foams Prepared by a Two-Step Acetalization Method

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    A series of microporous open-cell poly­(vinyl formal) (PVF) foams were obtained by cross-linking poly­(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with different contents of formaldehyde during the first acetalization process. In this reaction, water acted not only as the solvent of PVA but also as the pore-forming agent, which made this method more concise and environment-friendly. However, the PVF foam walls were not strong enough to maintain the initial pore shapes and sizes. The second acetalization process was used to increase the acetalization degree to enhance the strength of the foam walls. The poly­(vinyl formal) foams obtained by the two-step acetalization method (TPVF) were able to keep the pretty microporous structures during the drying process. The materials with highly microporous structures exhibited a good ability to absorb normally incident sound. Therefore, the microporous open-cell TPVF foams have great potential in the application of sound absorption materials

    CNTF has no significant effect on hfRPE phagocytosis.

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    <p>Confluent monolayers of hfRPE received FITC-labeled POS for 4 hour with or without CNTF (50 ng/ml) and phagocytosis rate were quantified using relative FITC fluorescence intensity normalized to Hoechst 33342 nuclei stain. MFG-E8 (0.6 µM) was used as the positive control. Bar graph <b>A</b> show relative binding+internalization and bar graph <b>B</b> shows internalization only. Bars represent mean ± SEM with triplicate technical repeats. * <i>P</i><0.05, ** <i>P</i><0.01, *** <i>P</i><0.001 compared to negative control. NS: no statistical significance compared to each other. Practically identical results were obtained in another experiment.</p

    CO<sub>2</sub> Exsolution from CO<sub>2</sub> Saturated Water: Core-Scale Experiments and Focus on Impacts of Pressure Variations

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    For CO<sub>2</sub> sequestration and utilization in the shallow reservoirs, reservoir pressure changes are due to the injection rate changing, a leakage event, and brine withdrawal for reservoir pressure balance. The amounts of exsolved CO<sub>2</sub> which are influenced by the pressure reduction and the subsequent secondary imbibition process have a significant effect on the stability and capacity of CO<sub>2</sub> sequestration and utilization. In this study, exsolution behavior of the CO<sub>2</sub> has been studied experimentally using a core flooding system in combination with NMR/MRI equipment. Three series of pressure variation profiles, including depletion followed by imbibitions without or with repressurization and repetitive depletion and repressurization/imbibition cycles, were designed to investigate the exsolution responses for these complex pressure variation profiles. We found that the exsolved CO<sub>2</sub> phase preferentially occupies the larger pores and exhibits a uniform spatial distribution. The mobility of CO<sub>2</sub> is low during the imbibition process, and the residual trapping ratio is extraordinarily high. During the cyclic pressure variation process, the first cycle has the largest contribution to the amount of exsolved CO<sub>2</sub>. The low CO<sub>2</sub> mobility implies a certain degree of self-sealing during a possible reservoir depletion
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