235 research outputs found

    SARS-CoV-2 perinatal transmission and neonatal outcomes across four different waves of COVID-19 pandemic: A nationwide prospective cohort study from the Italian Society of Neonatology

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    Objectives: To describe how SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of delivery affected maternal and neonatal outcomes across four major waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Methods: This is a large, prospective, nationwide cohort study collecting maternal and neonatal data in case of maternal peripartum SARS-CoV-2 infection between February 2020 and March 2022. Data were stratified across the four observed pandemic waves. Results: Among 5201 COVID-19-positive mothers, the risk of being symptomatic at delivery was significantly higher in the first and third waves (20.8-20.8%) than in the second and fourth (13.2-12.2%). Among their 5284 neonates, the risk of prematurity (gestational age <37 weeks) was significantly higher in the first and third waves (15.6-12.5%). The risk of intrauterine transmission was always very low, while the risk of postnatal transmission during rooming-in was higher and peaked at 4.5% during the fourth wave. A total of 80% of positive neonates were asymptomatic. Conclusion: The risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes was significantly higher during the first and third waves, dominated by unsequenced variants and the Delta variant, respectively. Postnatal transmission accounted for most neonatal infections and was more frequent during the Omicron period. However, the paucity of symptoms in infected neonates should lead us not to separate the dyad

    Eating Disorders and Disturbed Eating Behaviors Underlying Body Weight Differences in Patients Affected by Endometriosis: Preliminary Results from an Italian Cross-Sectional Study

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    Abstract: This study aimed to characterize the prevalence of eating disorders(EDs), disturbed eating behaviors (DEBs), and emotional eating attitudes (EEAs) among patients affected by endometriosis in order to understand a potential crosslink between this impacting gynecological disease and a Body Mass Index shift. A total of 30 patients were recruited at an endometriosis outpatient clinic in Bologna and were assessed by using standardized instruments and specific questionnaires for EDs, DEBs, and EEAs. Sociodemographic information and endometriosis clinical features and history information were collected by adopting a specific questionnaire. Retrospective reports of lifetime Body Mass Index (BMI) changes, current BMI, peak pain severity during the last menstrual period, and the average of pain intensity during the last intermenstrual period were used for a correlation with the mean score from eating-behavior scales’ assessment. The preliminary results indicate that, although only 3.33% of endometriosis patients are affected by ED, statistically significant differences at the mean scores of DEBs and EEAs assessment scales were found by strati-fying patients on the basis of BMI levels at risk for infertility and coronary heart disease and on the basis ofmoderate/severe pain levels. The enrichment of the sample size and the recruitment of the control group to complete the study enrollment will allow us to investigate more complex and strong correlation findings and to assess the prevalence of EDs among endometriosis patients. Keywords: endometriosis; BMI; pain; eating disorders;disturbed eating behaviors; emotional eating attitude

    Severe-Enduring Anorexia Nervosa (SE-AN): a case series

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    Abstract Background Anorexia Nervosa (AN) poses significant therapeutic challenges, especially in cases meeting the criteria for Severe and Enduring Anorexia Nervosa (SE-AN). This subset of AN is associated with severe medical complications, frequent use of services, and the highest mortality rate among psychiatric disorders. Case presentation In the present case series, 14 patients were selected from those currently or previously taken care of at the Eating Disorders Outpatients Unit of the Maggiore Hospital in Bologna between January 2012 and May 2023. This case series focuses on the effects of the disease, the treatment compliance, and the description of those variables that could help understand the great complexity of the disorder. Conclusion This case series highlights the relevant issue of resistance to treatment, as well as medical and psychological complications that mark the life course of SE-AN patients. The chronicity of these disorders is determined by the overlapping of the disorder's ego-syntonic nature, the health system's difficulty in recognizing the problem in its early stages, and the presence of occupational and social impairment

    Targeted volume correlative light and electron microscopy of an environmental marine microorganism

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    International audienceABSTRACT Photosynthetic microalgae are responsible for an important fraction of CO2 fixation and O2 production on Earth. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructural characterization of these organisms in their natural environment can contribute to a deeper understanding of their cell biology. However, the low throughput of volume electron microscopy (vEM) methods along with the complexity and heterogeneity of environmental samples pose great technical challenges. In the present study, we used a workflow based on a specific electron microscopy sample preparation method compatible with both light and vEM imaging in order to target one cell among a complex natural community. This method revealed the 3D subcellular landscape of a photosynthetic dinoflagellate, which we identified as Ensiculifera tyrrhenica, with quantitative characterization of multiple organelles. We show that this cell contains a single convoluted chloroplast and show the arrangement of the flagellar apparatus with its associated photosensitive elements. Moreover, we observed partial chromatin unfolding, potentially associated with transcription activity in these organisms, in which chromosomes are permanently condensed. Together with providing insights in dinoflagellate biology, this proof-of-principle study illustrates an efficient tool for the targeted ultrastructural analysis of environmental microorganisms in heterogeneous mixes

    Morphological Methods to Evaluate Peripheral Nerve Fiber Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review

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    Regeneration of damaged peripheral nerves remains one of the main challenges of neurosurgery and regenerative medicine, a nerve functionality is rarely restored, especially after severe injuries. Researchers are constantly looking for innovative strategies for tackling this problem, with the development of advanced tissue-engineered nerve conduits and new pharmacological and physical interventions, with the aim of improving patients&rsquo; life quality. Different evaluation methods can be used to study the effectiveness of a new treatment, including functional tests, morphological assessment of regenerated nerve fibers and biomolecular analyses of key factors necessary for good regeneration. The number and diversity of protocols and methods, as well as the availability of innovative technologies which are used to assess nerve regeneration after experimental interventions, often makes it difficult to compare results obtained in different labs. The purpose of the current review is to describe the main morphological approaches used to evaluate the degree of nerve fiber regeneration in terms of their usefulness and limitations

    Morphological Methods to Evaluate Peripheral Nerve Fiber Regeneration: A Comprehensive Review

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    Regeneration of damaged peripheral nerves remains one of the main challenges of neurosurgery and regenerative medicine, a nerve functionality is rarely restored, especially after severe injuries. Researchers are constantly looking for innovative strategies for tackling this problem, with the development of advanced tissue-engineered nerve conduits and new pharmacological and physical interventions, with the aim of improving patients’ life quality. Different evaluation methods can be used to study the effectiveness of a new treatment, including functional tests, morphological assessment of regenerated nerve fibers and biomolecular analyses of key factors necessary for good regeneration. The number and diversity of protocols and methods, as well as the availability of innovative technologies which are used to assess nerve regeneration after experimental interventions, often makes it difficult to compare results obtained in different labs. The purpose of the current review is to describe the main morphological approaches used to evaluate the degree of nerve fiber regeneration in terms of their usefulness and limitations

    Impact of Gut Microbiota on the Peripheral Nervous System in Physiological, Regenerative and Pathological Conditions

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    It has been widely demonstrated that the gut microbiota is responsible for essential functions in human health and that its perturbation is implicated in the development and progression of a growing list of diseases. The number of studies evaluating how the gut microbiota interacts with and influences other organs and systems in the body and vice versa is constantly increasing and several ‘gut–organ axes’ have already been defined. Recently, the view on the link between the gut microbiota (GM) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has become broader by exceeding the fact that the PNS can serve as a systemic carrier of GM-derived metabolites and products to other organs. The PNS as the communication network between the central nervous system and the periphery of the body and internal organs can rather be affected itself by GM perturbation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the impact of gut microbiota on the PNS, with regard to its somatic and autonomic divisions, in physiological, regenerative and pathological conditions
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