27 research outputs found

    Fluorescent paper-based sensor integrated with headspace thin-film microextraction for the detection of acyclic N-nitrosamines following in situ photocatalytic decomposition

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    Financiado para publicaci√≥n en acceso aberto: Universidade de Vigo/CISUGBackground: In this work, a novel analytical approach based on the photocatalytic decomposition of N-nitrosamines combined with headspace thin-film microextraction of the generated nitrogen oxides such as NO has been developed for the determination of the acyclic N-nitrosamine fraction in drinking water samples. A hydrophilic cellulose substrate modified with fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs) was used both as extractant and sensing platform. A quenching effect of Ag NCs fluorescence occurs as the concentration of N-nitrosamines increases. Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy with a solid sample holder was employed for directly measuring the fluorescence quenching onto the cellulose substrate. Results: In order to achieve an optimal analytical response, different parameters involved in the photocatalytic reaction as well as those concerning the microextraction step were fully investigated. It is demonstrated that the photodegradation rate of cyclic N-nitrosamines at acidic pH is much lower than that of acyclic ones, which can be the basis for the determination of the later fraction in waters. Under optimal conditions, a detection limit for the acyclic N-nitrosamine fraction around 0.08 őľg L‚ąí1 using N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as model compound for calibration was obtained. Several drinking waters were spiked with acyclic N-nitrosamines showing recoveries in the range of 98‚Äď102% with a relative standard deviation of 3‚Äď4% (N = 3). Significance and novelty: N-nitrosamines generated as by-products during disinfection processes applied to water cause multiple adverse effects on human health being classified as potential human carcinogens. This study highlights the suitability of a fluorescent paper-based sensor for the rapid analysis of the acyclic N-nitrosamine fraction (i.e. the most abundant fraction) as a total index in drinking water, being useful as screening tool before exhaustive chromatographic analysis, which saves costs, time and reduces waste generation.Agencia Estatal de Investigacion | Ref. RTI2018- 093697-B-I00Xunta de Galicia | Ref. ED481D-2021-02

    Turn‚Äďon fluorescent sensor for the detection of periodate anion following photochemical synthesis of nitrogen and sulphur co‚Äďdoped carbon dots from vegetables

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    In this work, a novel one‚Äďstep ‚Äėbottom‚Äďup‚Äô synthetic approach is described for obtaining highly fluorescent nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) co‚Äďdoped carbon dots (CDs) following photochemical oxidation of carbohydrates naturally occurring in vegetables. N and S co‚Äďdoping allows more active sites in the CDs surface resulting in an enhancement of their luminescent properties. Among the 18 vegetables studied as green precursors of CDs, those rich in proteins and glucosinolates (natural S‚Äďlinked glucosides), such as cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae family), i.e. broccoli, cauliflower and Romanesco, facilitate an efficient N and S co‚Äďdoping of the CDs during the photochemical reaction without the need for further post‚Äďsynthetic treatments. A comprehensive characterization of CDs obtained from broccoli was performed by transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, X‚Äďray fluorescence (total reflection), UV‚ÄďVis absorption and Fourier transform‚Äďinfrared spectroscopy. Quantum yields and fluorescence up‚Äďconversion properties were also investigated. Monodisperse CDs (‚ąľ8‚ÄČnm average size) with up‚Äďconversion fluorescence properties and a quantum yield (QY) of 22% are obtained. More importantly, a dramatic increase in the CDs fluorescence (turn‚Äďon) is observed when the highly oxidant periodate anion (IO4‚ąí) is added to the reaction medium, which allowed us to construct a sensitive and selective fluorescent assay for the detection of periodate anion in wastewater samples. The detection limit was 19 őľM IO4‚ąí and the repeatability expressed as the relative standard deviation was 3.2% (N‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ5)Ministerio de Econom√≠a y Competitividad | Ref. CTQ2015‚Äď68146‚Äď

    Detection of gases and organic vapors by cellulose-based sensors

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    The growing interest in the development of cost-effective, straightforward, and rapid analytical systems has found cellulose-based materials, including cellulose derivatives, cellulose-based gels, nanocellulosic materials, and the corresponding (nano)cellulose-based composites, to be valuable platforms for sensor development. The present work presents recent advances in the development of cellulose-based sensors for the determination of volatile analytes and derivatives of analytical relevance. In particular, strategies described in the literature for the fabrication and modification of cellulose-based substrates with responsive materials are summarized. In addition, selected contributions reported in the field of paper-based volatile sensors are discussed, with a particular emphasis on quick response (QR) code paper-based platforms, intelligent films for food freshness monitoring, and sensor arrays for volatile discrimination purposes. Furthermore, analytical strategies devised for the determination of ionic species by in situ generation of volatile derivatives in both paper-based analytical devices (PADs) and microfluidic PADs will also be described.Universidade de Vigo/CISUGAgencia Estatal de Investigación | Ref. RTI2018-093697-B-I0

    Evaluaci√≥n de la vida √ļtil de quesos semimaduros con recubrimientos comestibles utilizando aceite esencial de jengibre (Zingiber officinale) como agente antimicrobiano.

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    The use of biodegradable materials has made it possible to replace plastic packaging to a large extent. Edible coatings from polysaccharides have become an attractive and cost-effective alternative for food preservation. For this work, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) films (1.5, 2.0, 2.5%) were used incorporating glycerol as a plasticizer (5%) and essential oil (AE) (0.05, 0.1 mL / L) of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an antimicrobial agent for the conservation of paipa-like semi-mature cheeses. The extraction of AE from ginger (Zingiber officinale) was carried out, as well as the identification of its main components. For the physicochemical effect tests of the rhizome (Rz) (moisture 84.79, ash 1.39 proteins 2.27, fat 4.12, fiber 0.62, carbohydrates 5.78) were performed on the analyzed species. The essential oil was obtained by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) in a time of 60 minutes (divided into intervals of 15 minutes), with a final separation by Rota evaporation. The yields obtained were 0.15-0.25% with respect to the wet weight. The physical characteristics of the samples showed values of refractive index of 1.52, density 0.88 g / ml and solubility in ethanol at 96¬ļ of purity. The analysis of the essential oil was performed by GC-MS, finding a high content of sesquiterpenes, such as zingiberene (7.2-8.5%) and a-curcumene (2.8-3.3%). Semi-mature cheeses were coated, and stored under shelf conditions (15¬įC, 80% RH), evaluating for 24 days the growth inhibition of the predominant microbiota in this type of food (Penicillium, Aspergillius, Geotrichum, Mucor sp and Fusarium). The RC for CMC 2.5; AE 0.1 mL and glycerol of 5% presented significant differences (<0.5) with respect to the reduction of the microbial load for the final product, becoming an agroindustrial alternative for the conservation of cheeses.El uso de materiales biodegradables ha permitido sustituir en gran parte los empaques pl√°sticos. Los recubrimientos comestibles a partir de polisac√°ridos se han convertido en una alternativa atractiva y rentable para la conservaci√≥n de alimentos. Para este trabajo, se utilizaron pel√≠culas de carboximetilcelulosa (CMC) (1,5; 2,0; 2,5%) incorporando glicerol como plastificante (5%) y aceite esencial (AE)¬† (0,05; 0.1 mL/l) de jengibre (Zingiber officinale) como agente antimicrobiano para la conservaci√≥n de quesos semimaduros. Se realiz√≥ la extracci√≥n de AE de jengibre (Zingiber officinale), as√≠ como a la identificaci√≥n de sus componentes principales. Para el efecto se realizaron pruebas fisicoqu√≠micas del rizoma (Humedad 84,79; Cenizas 1,39 Prote√≠nas 2,27; Grasa 4,12; Fibra 0,62; Carbohidratos 5,78) sobre la especie analizada. El aceite esencial fue obtenido por hidrodestilaci√≥n asistida por microondas (MWHD) en un tiempo de 60 minutos (dividido en intervalos de 15 minutos), con una separaci√≥n final por rotaevaporaci√≥n. Los rendimientos obtenidos fueron del 0,15-0,25% con respecto al peso h√ļmedo. Las caracter√≠sticas f√≠sicas de las muestras presentaron valores de √≠ndice de refracci√≥n de 1.52, densidad 0.88 g/ml y solubilidad en etanol a 96¬ļ. El an√°lisis del aceite esencial se realiz√≥ por GC-MS, encontr√°ndose un alto contenido de sesquiterpenos, como el zingibereno (7,2-8,5%) y el a-curcumeno (2,8-3.3%). Los quesos semimaduros fueron recubiertos, y almacenados en condiciones de anaquel (15¬įC; HR 80%), evalu√°ndose durante 24 d√≠as¬† la inhibici√≥n del crecimiento de la microbiota predominante en este tipo de alimentos (Penicillium, Aspergillius, Geotrichum, Mucor sp y Fusarium).

    Genetic landscape of 6089 inherited retinal dystrophies affected cases in Spain and their therapeutic and extended epidemiological implications

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    Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs), defined by dysfunction or progressive loss of photoreceptors, are disorders characterized by elevated heterogeneity, both at the clinical and genetic levels. Our main goal was to address the genetic landscape of IRD in the largest cohort of Spanish patients reported to date. A retrospective hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 6089 IRD affected individuals (from 4403 unrelated families), referred for genetic testing from all the Spanish autonomous communities. Clinical, demographic and familiar data were collected from each patient, including family pedigree, age of appearance of visual symptoms, presence of any systemic findings and geographical origin. Genetic studies were performed to the 3951 families with available DNA using different molecular techniques. Overall, 53.2% (2100/3951) of the studied families were genetically characterized, and 1549 different likely causative variants in 142 genes were identified. The most common phenotype encountered is retinitis pigmentosa (RP) (55.6% of families, 2447/4403). The most recurrently mutated genes were PRPH2, ABCA4 and RS1 in autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR) and X-linked (XL) NON-RP cases, respectively; RHO, USH2A and RPGR in AD, AR and XL for non-syndromic RP; and USH2A and MYO7A in syndromic IRD. Pathogenic variants c.3386G > T (p.Arg1129Leu) in ABCA4 and c.2276G > T (p.Cys759Phe) in USH2A were the most frequent variants identified. Our study provides the general landscape for IRD in Spain, reporting the largest cohort ever presented. Our results have important implications for genetic diagnosis, counselling and new therapeutic strategies to both the Spanish population and other related populations.This work was supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) of the Spanish Ministry of Health (FIS; PI16/00425 and PI19/00321), Centro de Investigaci√≥n Biom√©dica en Red Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER, 06/07/0036), IIS-FJD BioBank (PT13/0010/0012), Comunidad de Madrid (CAM, RAREGenomics Project, B2017/BMD-3721), European Regional Development Fund (FEDER), the Organizaci√≥n Nacional de Ciegos Espa√Īoles (ONCE), Fundaci√≥n Ram√≥n Areces, Fundaci√≥n Conchita R√°bago and the University Chair UAM-IIS-FJD of Genomic Medicine. Irene Perea-Romero is supported by a PhD fellowship from the predoctoral Program from ISCIII (FI17/00192). Ionut F. Iancu is supported by a grant from the Comunidad de Madrid (CAM, PEJ-2017-AI/BMD7256). Marta del Pozo-Valero is supported by a PhD grant from the Fundaci√≥n Conchita R√°bago. Berta Almoguera is supported by a Juan Rodes program from ISCIII (JR17/00020). Pablo Minguez is supported by a Miguel Servet program from ISCIII (CP16/00116). Marta Corton is supported by a Miguel Servet program from ISCIII (CPII17/00006). The funders played no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, manuscript preparation and/or publication decisions

    Treatment with tocilizumab or corticosteroids for COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammatory state: a multicentre cohort study (SAM-COVID-19)

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    Objectives: The objective of this study was to estimate the association between tocilizumab or corticosteroids and the risk of intubation or death in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) with a hyperinflammatory state according to clinical and laboratory parameters. Methods: A cohort study was performed in 60 Spanish hospitals including 778 patients with COVID-19 and clinical and laboratory data indicative of a hyperinflammatory state. Treatment was mainly with tocilizumab, an intermediate-high dose of corticosteroids (IHDC), a pulse dose of corticosteroids (PDC), combination therapy, or no treatment. Primary outcome was intubation or death; follow-up was 21 days. Propensity score-adjusted estimations using Cox regression (logistic regression if needed) were calculated. Propensity scores were used as confounders, matching variables and for the inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs). Results: In all, 88, 117, 78 and 151 patients treated with tocilizumab, IHDC, PDC, and combination therapy, respectively, were compared with 344 untreated patients. The primary endpoint occurred in 10 (11.4%), 27 (23.1%), 12 (15.4%), 40 (25.6%) and 69 (21.1%), respectively. The IPTW-based hazard ratios (odds ratio for combination therapy) for the primary endpoint were 0.32 (95%CI 0.22-0.47; p < 0.001) for tocilizumab, 0.82 (0.71-1.30; p 0.82) for IHDC, 0.61 (0.43-0.86; p 0.006) for PDC, and 1.17 (0.86-1.58; p 0.30) for combination therapy. Other applications of the propensity score provided similar results, but were not significant for PDC. Tocilizumab was also associated with lower hazard of death alone in IPTW analysis (0.07; 0.02-0.17; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Tocilizumab might be useful in COVID-19 patients with a hyperinflammatory state and should be prioritized for randomized trials in this situatio

    Dissecting the Shared Genetic Architecture of Suicide Attempt, Psychiatric Disorders, and Known Risk Factors

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    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, and nonfatal suicide attempts, which occur far more frequently, are a major source of disability and social and economic burden. Both have substantial genetic etiology, which is partially shared and partially distinct from that of related psychiatric disorders. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 29,782 suicide attempt (SA) cases and 519,961 controls in the International Suicide Genetics Consortium (ISGC). The GWAS of SA was conditioned on psychiatric disorders using GWAS summary statistics via multitrait-based conditional and joint analysis, to remove genetic effects on SA mediated by psychiatric disorders. We investigated the shared and divergent genetic architectures of SA, psychiatric disorders, and other known risk factors. Results Two loci reached genome-wide significance for SA: the major histocompatibility complex and an intergenic locus on chromosome 7, the latter of which remained associated with SA after conditioning on psychiatric disorders and replicated in an independent cohort from the Million Veteran Program. This locus has been implicated in risk-taking behavior, smoking, and insomnia. SA showed strong genetic correlation with psychiatric disorders, particularly major depression, and also with smoking, pain, risk-taking behavior, sleep disturbances, lower educational attainment, reproductive traits, lower socioeconomic status, and poorer general health. After conditioning on psychiatric disorders, the genetic correlations between SA and psychiatric disorders decreased, whereas those with nonpsychiatric traits remained largely unchanged. Conclusions Our results identify a risk locus that contributes more strongly to SA than other phenotypes and suggest a shared underlying biology between SA and known risk factors that is not mediated by psychiatric disorders.Peer reviewe

    Prevalence, associated factors and outcomes of pressure injuries in adult intensive care unit patients: the DecubICUs study

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    Funder: European Society of Intensive Care Medicine; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100013347Funder: Flemish Society for Critical Care NursesAbstract: Purpose: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are particularly susceptible to developing pressure injuries. Epidemiologic data is however unavailable. We aimed to provide an international picture of the extent of pressure injuries and factors associated with ICU-acquired pressure injuries in adult ICU patients. Methods: International 1-day point-prevalence study; follow-up for outcome assessment until hospital discharge (maximum 12 weeks). Factors associated with ICU-acquired pressure injury and hospital mortality were assessed by generalised linear mixed-effects regression analysis. Results: Data from 13,254 patients in 1117 ICUs (90 countries) revealed 6747 pressure injuries; 3997 (59.2%) were ICU-acquired. Overall prevalence was 26.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.9‚Äď27.3). ICU-acquired prevalence was 16.2% (95% CI 15.6‚Äď16.8). Sacrum (37%) and heels (19.5%) were most affected. Factors independently associated with ICU-acquired pressure injuries were older age, male sex, being underweight, emergency surgery, higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Braden score 3 days, comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunodeficiency), organ support (renal replacement, mechanical ventilation on ICU admission), and being in a low or lower-middle income-economy. Gradually increasing associations with mortality were identified for increasing severity of pressure injury: stage I (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% CI 1.2‚Äď1.8), stage II (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4‚Äď1.9), and stage III or worse (OR 2.8; 95% CI 2.3‚Äď3.3). Conclusion: Pressure injuries are common in adult ICU patients. ICU-acquired pressure injuries are associated with mainly intrinsic factors and mortality. Optimal care standards, increased awareness, appropriate resource allocation, and further research into optimal prevention are pivotal to tackle this important patient safety threat