233 research outputs found

    Exercise-induced respiratory muscle fatigue: implications for performance

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    It is commonly held that the respiratory system has ample capacity relative to the demand for maximal O-2 and CO2 transport in healthy humans exercising near sea level. However, this situation may not apply during heavy-intensity, sustained exercise where exercise may encroach on the capacity of the respiratory system. Nerve stimulation techniques have provided objective evidence that the diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to fatigue with heavy, sustained exercise. The fatigue appears to be due to elevated levels of respiratory muscle work combined with an increased competition for blood flow with limb locomotor muscles. When respiratory muscles are prefatigued using voluntary respiratory maneuvers, time to exhaustion during subsequent exercise is decreased. Partially unloading the respiratory muscles during heavy exercise using low-density gas mixtures or mechanical ventilation can prevent exercise-induced diaphragm fatigue and increase exercise time to exhaustion. Collectively, these findings suggest that respiratory muscle fatigue may be involved in limiting exercise tolerance or that other factors, including alterations in the sensation of dyspnea or mechanical load, may be important. The major consequence of respiratory muscle fatigue is an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to working skeletal muscle through a respiratory muscle metaboreflex, thereby reducing limb blood flow and increasing the severity of exercise-induced locomotor muscle fatigue. An increase in limb locomotor muscle fatigue may play a pivotal role in determining exercise tolerance through a direct effect on muscle force output and a feedback effect on effort perception, causing reduced motor output to the working limb muscles

    Effect of expiratory muscle fatigue on exercise tolerance and locomotor muscle fatigue in healthy humans

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    High-intensity exercise (> or =90% of maximal O(2) uptake) sustained to the limit of tolerance elicits expiratory muscle fatigue (EMF). We asked whether prior EMF affects subsequent exercise tolerance. Eight male subjects (means +/- SD; maximal O(2) uptake = 53.5 +/- 5.2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) cycled at 90% of peak power output to the limit of tolerance with (EMF-EX) and without (CON-EX) prior induction of EMF and for a time equal to that achieved in EMF-EX but without prior induction of EMF (ISO-EX). To induce EMF, subjects breathed against an expiratory flow resistor until task failure (15 breaths/min, 0.7 expiratory duty cycle, 40% of maximal expiratory gastric pressure). Fatigue of abdominal and quadriceps muscles was assessed by measuring the reduction relative to prior baseline values in magnetically evoked gastric twitch pressure (Pga(tw)) and quadriceps twitch force (Q(tw)), respectively. The reduction in Pga(tw) was not different after resistive breathing vs. after CON-EX (-27 +/- 5 vs. -26 +/- 6%; P = 0.127). Exercise time was reduced by 33 +/- 10% in EMF-EX vs. CON-EX (6.85 +/- 2.88 vs. 9.90 +/- 2.94 min; P < 0.001). Exercise-induced abdominal and quadriceps muscle fatigue was greater after EMF-EX than after ISO-EX (-28 +/- 9 vs. -12 +/- 5% for Pga(tw), P = 0.001; -28 +/- 7 vs. -14 +/- 6% for Q(tw), P = 0.015). Perceptual ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort (Borg CR10) were higher at 1 and 3 min and at end exercise during EMF-EX vs. during ISO-EX (P < 0.05). Percent changes in limb fatigue and leg discomfort (EMF-EX vs. ISO-EX) correlated significantly with the change in exercise time. We propose that EMF impaired subsequent exercise tolerance primarily through an increased severity of limb locomotor muscle fatigue and a heightened perception of leg discomfort

    Effect of expiratory muscle fatigue on exercise tolerance and locomotor muscle fatigue in healthy humans

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    High-intensity exercise (> or =90% of maximal O(2) uptake) sustained to the limit of tolerance elicits expiratory muscle fatigue (EMF). We asked whether prior EMF affects subsequent exercise tolerance. Eight male subjects (means +/- SD; maximal O(2) uptake = 53.5 +/- 5.2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) cycled at 90% of peak power output to the limit of tolerance with (EMF-EX) and without (CON-EX) prior induction of EMF and for a time equal to that achieved in EMF-EX but without prior induction of EMF (ISO-EX). To induce EMF, subjects breathed against an expiratory flow resistor until task failure (15 breaths/min, 0.7 expiratory duty cycle, 40% of maximal expiratory gastric pressure). Fatigue of abdominal and quadriceps muscles was assessed by measuring the reduction relative to prior baseline values in magnetically evoked gastric twitch pressure (Pga(tw)) and quadriceps twitch force (Q(tw)), respectively. The reduction in Pga(tw) was not different after resistive breathing vs. after CON-EX (-27 +/- 5 vs. -26 +/- 6%; P = 0.127). Exercise time was reduced by 33 +/- 10% in EMF-EX vs. CON-EX (6.85 +/- 2.88 vs. 9.90 +/- 2.94 min; P < 0.001). Exercise-induced abdominal and quadriceps muscle fatigue was greater after EMF-EX than after ISO-EX (-28 +/- 9 vs. -12 +/- 5% for Pga(tw), P = 0.001; -28 +/- 7 vs. -14 +/- 6% for Q(tw), P = 0.015). Perceptual ratings of dyspnea and leg discomfort (Borg CR10) were higher at 1 and 3 min and at end exercise during EMF-EX vs. during ISO-EX (P < 0.05). Percent changes in limb fatigue and leg discomfort (EMF-EX vs. ISO-EX) correlated significantly with the change in exercise time. We propose that EMF impaired subsequent exercise tolerance primarily through an increased severity of limb locomotor muscle fatigue and a heightened perception of leg discomfort

    Exercise-induced abdominal muscle fatigue in healthy humans

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    Exercise-induced abdominal muscle fatigue in healthy humans. J Appl Physiol 100: 1554–1562, 2006. First published January 19, 2006; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01389.2005.—The abdominal muscles have been shown to fatigue in response to voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea using direct nerve stimulation techniques. We investigated whether the abdominal muscles fatigue in response to dynamic lower limb exercise using such techniques. Eleven male subjects [peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2 peak) 50.0 1.9 (SE) ml kg 1 min 1] cycled at 90% V˙ O2 peak to exhaustion (14.2 4.2 min). Abdominal muscle function was assessed before and up to 30 min after exercise by measuring the changes in gastric pressure (Pga) after the nerve roots supplying the abdominal muscles were magnetically stimulated at 1–25 Hz. Immediately after exercise there was a decrease in Pga at all stimulation frequencies (mean 25 4%; P 0.001) that persisted up to 30 min postexercise ( 12 4%; P 0.001). These reductions were unlikely due to changes in membrane excitability because amplitude, duration, and area of the rectus abdominis M wave were unaffected. Declines in the Pga response to maximal voluntary expiratory efforts occurred after exercise (158 13 before vs. 145 10 cmH2O after exercise; P 0.005). Voluntary activation, assessed using twitch interpolation, did not change (67 6 before vs. 64 2% after exercise; P 0.20), and electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique increased during these volitional maneuvers. These data provide new evidence that the abdominal muscles fatigue after sustained, high-intensity exercise and that the fatigue is primarily due to peripheral mechanisms

    Effects of oral creatine supplementation on high intensity, intermittent exercise performance in competitive squash players

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    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral creatine supplementation on high intensity, intermittent exercise performance in competitive squash players. Nine squash players (mean ± SEM V˙O2max = 61.9 ± 2.1ml · kg-1 · min-1; body mass = 73 ± 3 kg) performed an on-court “ghosting” routine that involved 10 sets of 2 repetitions of simulated positional play, each set interspersed with 30 s passive recovery. A double blind, crossover design was utilised whereby experimental and control groups supplemented 4 times daily for 5 d with 0.075 g · kg-1 body mass of creatine monohydrate and maltodextrine, respectively, and a 4 wk washout period separated the crossover of treatments. The experimental group improved mean set sprint time by 3.2 ± 0.8 % over and above the changes noted for the control group (P = 0.004 and 95 % Cl = 1.4 to 5.1 %). Sets 2 to 10 were completed in a significantly shorter time following creatine supplementation compared to the placebo condition (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data support existing evidence that creatine supplementation improves high intensity, intermittent exercise performance. In addition, the present study provides new evidence that oral creatine supplementation improves exercise performance in competitive squash players

    Effect of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia on quadriceps muscle fatigue in healthy humans

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    The effect of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) on quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed in 11 male endurance-trained subjects [peak O2 uptake (V̇o2 peak) = 56.4 ± 2.8 ml·kg−1·min−1; mean ± SE]. Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer at ≥90% V̇o2 peak to exhaustion (13.2 ± 0.8 min), during which time arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) fell from 97.7 ± 0.1% at rest to 91.9 ± 0.9% (range 84–94%) at end exercise, primarily because of changes in blood pH (7.183 ± 0.017) and body temperature (38.9 ± 0.2°C). On a separate occasion, subjects repeated the exercise, for the same duration and at the same power output as before, but breathed gas mixtures [inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) = 0.25–0.31] that prevented EIAH (SaO2 = 97–99%). Quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed via supramaximal paired magnetic stimuli of the femoral nerve (1–100 Hz). Immediately after exercise at FiO2 0.21, the mean force response across 1–100 Hz decreased 33 ± 5% compared with only 15 ± 5% when EIAH was prevented (P < 0.05). In a subgroup of four less fit subjects, who showed minimal EIAH at FiO2 0.21 (SaO2 = 95.3 ± 0.7%), the decrease in evoked force was exacerbated by 35% (P < 0.05) in response to further desaturation induced via FiO2 0.17 (SaO2 = 87.8 ± 0.5%) for the same duration and intensity of exercise. We conclude that the arterial O2 desaturation that occurs in fit subjects during high-intensity exercise in normoxia (−6 ± 1% ΔSaO2 from rest) contributes significantly toward quadriceps muscle fatigue via a peripheral mechanism

    Effects of arterial oxygen content on peripheral locomotor muscle fatigue

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    The effect of arterial O2 content (Ca(O2)) on quadriceps fatigue was assessed in healthy, trained male athletes. On separate days, eight participants completed three constant-workload trials on a bicycle ergometer at fixed workloads (314 +/- 13 W). The first trial was performed while the subjects breathed a hypoxic gas mixture [inspired O2 fraction (Fi(O2)) = 0.15, Hb saturation = 81.6%, Ca(O2) = 18.2 ml O2/dl blood; Hypo] until exhaustion (4.5 +/- 0.4 min). The remaining two trials were randomized and time matched with Hypo. The second and third trials were performed while the subjects breathed a normoxic (Fi(O2) = 0.21, Hb saturation = 95.0%, Ca(O2) = 21.3 ml O2/dl blood; Norm) and a hyperoxic (Fi(O2) = 1.0, Hb saturation = 100%, Ca(O2) = 23.8 ml O2/dl blood; Hyper) gas mixture, respectively. Quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed via magnetic femoral nerve stimulation (1-100 Hz) before and 2.5 min after exercise. Myoelectrical activity of the vastus lateralis was obtained from surface electrodes throughout exercise. Immediately after exercise, the mean force response across 1-100 Hz decreased from preexercise values (P < 0.01) by -26 +/- 2, -17 +/- 2, and -13 +/- 2% for Hypo, Norm, and Hyper, respectively; each of the decrements differed significantly (P < 0.05). Integrated electromyogram increased significantly throughout exercise (P < 0.01) by 23 +/- 3, 10 +/- 1, and 6 +/- 1% for Hypo, Norm, and Hyper, respectively; each of the increments differed significantly (P < 0.05). Mean power frequency fell more (P < 0.05) during Hypo (-15 +/- 2%); the difference between Norm (-7 +/- 1%) and Hyper (-6 +/- 1%) was not significant (P = 0.32). We conclude that deltaCa(O2) during strenuous systemic exercise at equal workloads and durations affects the rate of locomotor muscle fatigue development

    Effect of acute severe hypoxia on peripheral fatigue and endurance capacity in healthy humans

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    Effect of acute severe hypoxia on peripheral fatigue and endurance capacity in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 292: R598–R606, 2007. First published September 7, 2006; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00269.2006.—We hypothesized that severe hypoxia limits exercise performance via decreased contractility of limb locomotor muscles. Nine male subjects [mean SE maximum O2 uptake (V˙ O2 max) 56.5 2.7 ml kg 1 min 1] cycled at 90% V˙ O2 max to exhaustion in normoxia [NORM-EXH; inspired O2 fraction (FIO2) 0.21, arterial O2 saturation (SpO2) 93 1%] and hypoxia (HYPOX-EXH; FIO2 0.13, SpO2 76 1%). The subjects also exercised in normoxia for a time equal to that achieved in hypoxia (NORM-CTRL; SpO2 96 1%). Quadriceps twitch force, in response to supramaximal single (nonpotentiated and potentiated 1 Hz) and paired magnetic stimuli of the femoral nerve (10–100 Hz), was assessed pre- and at 2.5, 35, and 70 min postexercise. Hypoxia exacerbated exercise-induced peripheral fatigue, as evidenced by a greater decrease in potentiated twitch force in HYPOX-EXH vs. NORM-CTRL ( 39 4 vs. 24 3%, P 0.01). Time to exhaustion was reduced by more than two-thirds in HYPOX-EXH vs. NORM-EXH (4.2 0.5 vs. 13.4 0.8 min, P 0.01); however, peripheral fatigue was not different in HYPOX-EXH vs. NORM-EXH ( 34 4 vs. 39 4%, P 0.05). Blood lactate concentration and perceptions of limb discomfort were higher throughout HYPOX-EXH vs. NORM-CTRL but were not different at end-exercise in HYPOX-EXH vs. NORM-EXH. We conclude that severe hypoxia exacerbates peripheral fatigue of limb locomotor muscles and that this effect may contribute, in part, to the early termination of exercise
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