72 research outputs found

    Manual correction of semi-automatic three-dimensional echocardiography is needed for right ventricular assessment in adults; validation with cardiac magnetic resonance

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    Background: Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semi-automatic right ventricular delineation has been proposed as an appropriate method for right ventricle (RV) evaluation. We aimed to examine how manual correction of semi-automatic delineation influences the accuracy of 3DE for RV volumes and function in a clinical adult setting using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as the reference method. We also examined the feasibility of RV visualization with 3DE. Methods: 62 non-selected patients were examined with 3DE (Sonos 7500 and iE33) and with CMR (1.5T). Endocardial RV contours of 3DE-images were semi-automatically assessed and manually corrected in all patients. End-diastolic (EDV), end-systolic (ESV) volumes, stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) were computed. Results: 53 patients (85%) had 3DE-images feasible for examination. Correlation coefficients and Bland Altman biases between 3DE with manual correction and CMR were r = 0.78, -22 +/- 27 mL for EDV, r = 0.83, -7 +/- 16 mL for ESV, r = 0.60, -12 +/- 18 mL for SV and r = 0.60, -2 +/- 8% for EF (p < 0.001 for all r-values). Without manual correction r-values were 0.77, 0.77, 0.70 and 0.49 for EDV, ESV, SV and EF, respectively (p < 0.001 for all r-values) and biases were larger for EDV, SV and EF (-32 +/- 26 mL, -21 +/- 15 mL and -6 +/- 9%, p <= 0.01 for all) compared to manual correction. Conclusion: Manual correction of the 3DE semi-automatic RV delineation decreases the bias and is needed for acceptable clinical accuracy. 3DE is highly feasible for visualizing the RV in an adult clinical setting

    Cardiovascular drug utilization post-implant is related to clinical outcome in heart failure patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy

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        Background: In select patients with heart failure, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is the most common complementary treatment besides medical treatment. We aimed to assess the association between post CRT-implant changes in cardiovascular medication and cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalization. Methods: 211 patients on optimal medical therapy eligible for CRT were retrospectively included in this study (72 ± 7 years, 80% male, 66% left bundle branch block, 48% dilated cardiomyopathy and investigated at baseline and after 6 months. Follow-up with medication, biochemical markers and echocardiography was performed and 3-year mortality data was collected. Results: At 6 months post-implant the cohort was divided into two groups; 157 patients had low dosage furosemide treatment (up to 40 mg) and 54 patients were treated with high dosage (&gt; 40 mg). A composite endpoint of heart failure hospitalization and all-cause mortality was evaluated at 30 months (881 ± 267 days) after the 6-month visit. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, pa­tients in the high dose diuretics group had a higher risk of the primary endpoint (HR 1.9 [1.1–3.4], p = 0.033), but treatment with high dose diuretics was not associated with improved clinical symptoms (r = 0.031, p = 0.64). Conclusions: High dosage of loop-diuretics was associated with worse medium-term clinical outcome in CRT treated patients. It is unclear whether there is a direct causality between these associations, or if higher prescribed dosage of loop-diuretics is just a marker of more severe disease. Higher dose loop diuretics do not necessarily improve the symptoms and may be harmful to the patient. Prospective trials are warranted to further elucidate these findings. (Cardiol J 2017; 24, 4: 374–384

    The Effects of Oxygen Therapy on Myocardial Salvage in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated with Acute Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The Supplemental Oxygen in Catheterized Coronary Emergency Reperfusion (SOCCER) Study.

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    Despite a lack of scientific evidence, oxygen has long been a part of standard treatment for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, several studies suggest that oxygen therapy may have negative cardiovascular effects. We here describe a randomized controlled trial, i.e. Supplemental Oxygen in Catheterized Coronary Emergency Reperfusion (SOCCER), aiming to evaluate the effect of oxygen therapy on myocardial salvage and infarct size in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

    Prediction of sinus rhythm maintenance following DC-cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation – the role of atrial cycle length

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    BACKGROUND: Atrial electrical remodeling has been shown to influence the outcome the outcome following cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) in experimental studies. The aim of the present study was to find out whether a non-invasively measured atrial fibrillatory cycle length, alone or in combination with other non-invasive parameters, could predict sinus rhythm maintenance after cardioversion of AF. METHODS: Dominant atrial cycle length (DACL), a previously validated non-invasive index of atrial refractoriness, was measured from lead V1 and a unipolar oesophageal lead prior to cardioversion in 37 patients with persistent AF undergoing their first cardioversion. RESULTS: 32 patients were successfully cardioverted to sinus rhythm. The mean DACL in the 22 patients who suffered recurrence of AF within 6 weeks was 152 ± 15 ms (V1) and 147 ± 14 ms (oesophagus) compared to 155 ± 17 ms (V1) and 151 ± 18 ms (oesophagus) in those maintaining sinus rhythm (NS). Left atrial diameter was 48 ± 4 mm and 44 ± 7 mm respectively (NS). The optimal parameter predicting maintenance of sinus rhythm after 6 weeks appeared to be the ratio of the lowest dominant atrial cycle length (oesophageal lead or V1) to left atrial diameter. This ratio was significantly higher in patients remaining in sinus rhythm (3.4 ± 0.6 vs. 3.1 ± 0.4 ms/mm respectively, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In this study neither an index of atrial refractory period nor left atrial diameter alone were predictors of AF recurrence within the 6 weeks of follow-up. The ratio of the two (combining electrophysiological and anatomical measurements) only slightly improve the identification of patients at high risk of recurrence of persistent AF. Consequently, other ways to asses electrical remodeling and / or other variables besides electrical remodeling are involved in determining the outcome following cardioversion

    Can pulsed ultrasound increase tissue damage during ischemia? A study of the effects of ultrasound on infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium in anesthetized pigs

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    BACKGROUND: The same mechanisms by which ultrasound enhances thrombolysis are described in connection with non-beneficial effects of ultrasound. The present safety study was therefore designed to explore effects of beneficial ultrasound characteristics on the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium. METHODS: In an open chest porcine model (n = 17), myocardial infarction was induced by ligating a coronary diagonal branch. Pulsed ultrasound of frequency 1 MHz and intensity 0.1 W/cm(2 )(I(SATA)) was applied during one hour to both infarcted and non-infarcted myocardial tissue. These ultrasound characteristics are similar to those used in studies of ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis. Using blinded assessment technique, myocardial damage was rated according to histopathological criteria. RESULTS: Infarcted myocardium exhibited a significant increase in damage score compared to non-infarcted myocardium: 6.2 ± 2.0 vs. 4.3 ± 1.5 (mean ± standard deviation), (p = 0.004). In the infarcted myocardium, ultrasound exposure yielded a further significant increase of damage scores: 8.1 ± 1.7 vs. 6.2 ± 2.0 (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest an instantaneous additive effect on the ischemic damage in myocardial tissue when exposed to ultrasound of stated characteristics. The ultimate damage degree remains to be clarified

    The Role of Transesophageal Echocardiography in Clinical Decision-Making in Patients with Stroke or Atrial Fibrillation

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    The subject of this thesis is the clinical use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with stroke or atrial fibrillation. Subjects were examined with echocardiography and sonography of the carotid artery. A control group of randomly selected volunteers without cerebrovascular disease was compared to patients with ischemic stroke. Cardiac pathology was classified as minor potential embolic sources (PCES) without a certain causative role of stroke (patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, protruding plaques of the aorta and mitral annular calcification) or major PCES, often related to heart disease (atrial fibrillation, left atrial/ventricular thrombus, impaired left ventricular function). Among controls, the prevalence of minor PCES was about 30%. Comparing control subjects to patients, the prevalence of minor PCES did not differ. The prevalence of major PCES differed significantly, (patients 27% versus controls 4%). In 80% of patients with a major PCES, they had a history of heart disease, but one fifth had no overt clinical heart disease. The prevalence of minor PCES did not differ between clinical sub-types of ischemic stroke. Patients with symptoms from anterior or middle cerebral artery territories were more likely to exhibit a major PCES and carotid artery disease compared to patients with lacunar syndromes. In clinical practice cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation/flutter is only attempted after treatment with warfarin for at least three weeks before cardioversion to exclude cardioversion related embolism. With TEE it is possible to select a low risk group for immediate cardioversion after exclusion of thrombi and signs of stasis of the left atrium (spontaneous echo contrast, low velocities of the left atrial appendage). Using these exclusion criteria we describe the safety of immediate cardioversion in 145 patients compared to traditional treatment of 58 patients. No embolic event occurred in either group after cardioversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm at one month was 75% of patients with immediate cardioversion compared to 45% of patients with pre treatment with warfarin. Using TEE to derive a velocity index (left atrial appendage outflow/ left atrial diameter), a value of >0.009 could predict maintenance of sinus rhythm at one month post cardioversion better than previously used clinical parameters

    Swedish guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis recommend overuse of transoesophageal echocardiography.

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    Echocardiography has a vital role for diagnosing and monitoring infectious endocarditis. The recently published Swedish guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of infectious endocarditis recommend overuse of transoesophageal echocardiography, which is not supported by the literature. The European Society of Cardiology presents a considerably more appropriate opinion

    Transoesophageal echocardiography-guided cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter. Selection of a low-risk group for immediate cardioversion

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    AIMS: Despite exclusion of left atrial thrombi by transoesophageal echocardiography, cardioversion-related thromboembolism has been reported in atrial fibrillation or flutter. To define a low-risk group for cardioversion without previous anticoagulation, patients were selected for immediate cardioversion if there were no thrombi, no echo spontaneous contrast and the outflow velocity of the left atrial appendage was greater than 0.25 m. s(-1)on transoesophageal echocardiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-two consecutive patients referred for cardioversion of atrial fibrillation or flutter with a duration of more than 2 days and no anticoagulation therapy were examined with transoesophageal echocardiography. After the transoesophageal echocardiography examination, patients who were eligible for immediate cardioversion were anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) subcutaneously, together with warfarin prior to cardioversion. Dalteparin treatment was continued until the patient had reached therapeutic prothrombin values. Based on the transoesophageal echocardiographic findings the patients were divided into two groups: immediate cardioversion, group A, with a mean age of 62+/-13 years (n=162); or conventional warfarin treatment before cardioversion, group B, with a mean age of 67+/-10 years (P or = 25 m. s(-1)) cardioversion can safely be performed in 2/3 of patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter without previous anticoagulation therapy. These patients maintained sinus rhythm significantly better after 1 month compared to patients with prolonged warfarin therapy before cardioversion
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