7,632 research outputs found

    Self-organization of heterogeneous topology and symmetry breaking in networks with adaptive thresholds and rewiring

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    We study an evolutionary algorithm that locally adapts thresholds and wiring in Random Threshold Networks, based on measurements of a dynamical order parameter. A control parameter pp determines the probability of threshold adaptations vs. link rewiring. For any p<1p < 1, we find spontaneous symmetry breaking into a new class of self-organized networks, characterized by a much higher average connectivity Kˉevo\bar{K}_{evo} than networks without threshold adaptation (p=1p =1). While Kˉevo\bar{K}_{evo} and evolved out-degree distributions are independent from pp for p<1p <1, in-degree distributions become broader when p→1p \to 1, approaching a power-law. In this limit, time scale separation between threshold adaptions and rewiring also leads to strong correlations between thresholds and in-degree. Finally, evidence is presented that networks converge to self-organized criticality for large NN.Comment: 4 pages revtex, 6 figure

    New physics from UA1

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    Revenge of the Once-ler: The Skeptical Environmentalist

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    Revenge of the Once-ler: The Skeptical Environmentalist

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    Allometric trajectories of body and head morphology in three sympatric Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) morphs

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    A study of body and head development in three sympatric reproductively isolated Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) morphs from a subarctic lake (Skogsfjordvatn, northern Norway) revealed allometric trajectories that resulted in morphological differences. The three morphs were ecologically assigned to a littoral omnivore, a profundal benthivore and a profundal piscivore, and this was confirmed by genetic analyses (microsatellites). Principal component analysis was used to identify the variables responsible for most of the morphological variation of the body and head shape. The littoral omnivore and the profundal piscivore morph had convergent allometric trajectories for the most important head shape variables, developing bigger mouths and relatively smaller eyes with increasing head size. The two profundal morphs shared common trajectories for the variables explaining most of the body and head shape variation, namely head size relative to body size, placement of the dorsal and pelvic fins, eye size and mouth size. In contrast, the littoral omnivore and the profundal benthivore morphs were not on common allometric trajectories for any of the examined variables. The findings suggest that different selective pressures could have been working on traits related to their trophic niche such as habitat and diet utilization of the three morphs, with the two profundal morphs experiencing almost identical environmental conditions

    Seeing distinct groups where there are none : spurious patterns from between-group PCA

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    Using sampling experiments, we found that, when there are fewer groups than variables, between-groups PCA (bgPCA) may suggest surprisingly distinct differences among groups for data in which none exist. While apparently not noticed before, the reasons for this problem are easy to understand. A bgPCA captures the g-1 dimensions of variation among the g group means, but only a fraction of the∑ni-g  dimensions of within-group variation ( are the sample sizes), when the number of variables, p, is greater than g-1. This introduces a distortion in the appearance of the bgPCA plots because the within-group variation will be underrepresented, unless the variables are sufficiently correlated so that the total variation can be accounted for with just g-1 dimensions. The effect is most obvious when sample sizes are small relative to the number of variables, because smaller samples spread out less, but the distortion is present even for large samples. Strong covariance among variables largely reduces the magnitude of the problem, because it effectively reduces the dimensionality of the data and thus enables a larger proportion of the within-group variation to be accounted for within the g-1-dimensional space of a bgPCA. The distortion will still be relevant though its strength will vary from case to case depending on the structure of the data (p, g, covariances etc.). These are important problems for a method mainly designed for the analysis of variation among groups when there are very large numbers of variables and relatively small samples. In such cases, users are likely to conclude that the groups they are comparing are much more distinct than they really are.  Having many variables but just small sample sizes is a common problem in fields ranging from morphometrics (as in our examples) to molecular analyses

    Radiation Damage Studies of Silicon Photomultipliers

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    We report on the measurement of the radiation hardness of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) manufactured by Fondazione Bruno Kessler in Italy (1 mm2^2 and 6.2 mm2^2), Center of Perspective Technology and Apparatus in Russia (1 mm2^2 and 4.4 mm2^2), and Hamamatsu Corporation in Japan (1 mm2^2). The SiPMs were irradiated using a beam of 212 MeV protons at Massachusetts General Hospital, receiving fluences of up to 3×10103 \times 10^{10} protons per cm2^2 with the SiPMs at operating voltage. Leakage currents were read continuously during the irradiation. The delivery of the protons was paused periodically to record scope traces in response to calibrated light pulses to monitor the gains, photon detection efficiencies, and dark counts of the SiPMs. The leakage current and dark noise are found to increase with fluence. Te leakage current is found to be proportional to the mean square deviation of the noise distribution, indicating the dark counts are due to increased random individual pixel activation, while SiPMs remain fully functional as photon detectors. The SiPMs are found to anneal at room temperature with a reduction in the leakage current by a factor of 2 in about 100 days.Comment: 35 pages, 25 figure

    Groundwater Flow and Elastoplastic Stress-Strain Model for Cohesive Soils with Application to Channel Bank Stability

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    A saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow and elastoplastic stress-strain finite element model was developed for simulating the mechanical behavior of rill and gully sized channel banks. The model coupled the two-dimensional saturated-unsaturated groundwater flow equation with a plane strain formulation of the virtual work equation. The constitutive relationship used the modified Cam clay yield function. The model included the effects of seepage force and variation in soil cohesive strength due to changes in water content and void ratio. A staggered solution procedure was used in which the groundwater equation was solved first to determine seepage force and soil cohesive force, and then the stress-strain equation was solved. Upon reaching the failure point, the elastoplastic constitutive relationship was replaced with a weak elastic relationship. The model was verified by comparing predictions with (1) one-dimensional analytic solutions for unsaturated flow, saturated flow, and elastic strain; (2) other numerical solutions using the modified Cam clay yield function; (3) triaxial tests; and (4) laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments employed a specially designed cyclic soil compactor and plexiglass flume to form and compact channel banks. The channel banks were subjected to a rising and falling hydrograph. Model simulation included groundwater movement into the channel bank, strain in the x-direction, and the location of finite elements which reached ultimate strength. Failure surfaces were delineated by zones of high x-strain in conjunction with finite elements which reached ultimate strength. The model provided good insight into the failure mechanism for popout failure and a reasonable prediction of plane failure
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