451 research outputs found

    Associatons Between Self-Reported Well-being and Neuromuscular Performance During a Professional Rugby Union Season.

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    Associatons between self-reported well-being and neuromuscular performance during a professional rugby union season. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2498-2509, 2018-Self-reported wellness is often used to monitor fatigue responses to training and competition. Constraints within team sports mean short-form wellness questionnaires are typically preferred to literature-validated documents. This research aimed to assess the relationship between self-reported wellness and neuromuscular (NM) performance during a professional rugby union season, and to identify changes in these parameters over a 12-week period. On the first training day each week, before activity, 37 players rated 5 wellness subscales ("fatigue/vigor," "upper-body soreness," "lower-body soreness," "mood," and "sleep quality/duration") on a 1-5 Likert scale (1 representing the lowest wellness), and 5-repetition countermovement jumps (CMJs) were completed after a warm-up. Each week, total wellness, wellness subscales, and 4 CMJ measures for each participant were calculated as change from baseline. Within-participant correlations were determined between changes in wellness and CMJ measures, whereas week-to week differences and differences from baseline were assessed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Within-participant correlations were compared for players grouped by age and position. Wellness and CMJ scores fluctuated according to physical stress, persisted beneath baseline throughout, and showed declining trends over 12 weeks. Very large (r = 0.7-0.89)/large (r = 0.5-0.69) correlations were identified between wellness and CMJ variables (positive: velocity, dip, time; negative: duration), and each wellness subscale displayed large/very large positive correlations with CMJ velocity. This was true for all subgroups, although subtle differences existed between ages and positions. It was concluded that players' subjective wellness is a useful tool, ideally used within a broader monitoring scheme, for monitoring ongoing NM fatigue, which increased from week to week

    A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Pregnant Women in the Context of Insecticide Treated Nets Delivered through the Antenatal Clinic

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    Background:Current recommendations to prevent malaria in African pregnant women rely on insecticide treated nets(ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). However, there is no information on the safety and efficacy of theircombined use.Methods:1030 pregnant Mozambican women of all gravidities received a long-lasting ITN during antenatal clinic (ANC)visits and, irrespective of HIV status, were enrolled in a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, to assess thesafety and efficacy of 2-dose sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). The main outcome was the reduction in low birth weight.Findings:Two-dose SP was safe and well tolerated, but was not associated with reductions in anaemia prevalence atdelivery (RR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.79-1.08]), low birth weight (RR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.70-1.39]), or overall placental infection(p = 0.964). However, the SP group showed a 40% reduction (95% CI, 7.40-61.20]; p = 0.020) in the incidence of clinicalmalaria during pregnancy, and reductions in the prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia (7.10% vs 15.15%) (p,0.001), and ofactively infected placentas (7.04% vs 13.60%) (p = 0.002). There was a reduction in severe anaemia at delivery of borderlinestatistical significance (p = 0.055). These effects were not modified by gravidity or HIV status. Reported ITN's use was morethan 90% in both groups.Conclusions:Two-dose SP was associated with a reduction in some indicators, but these were not translated to significantimprovement in other maternal or birth outcomes. The use of ITNs during pregnancy may reduce the need to administerIPTp. ITNs should be part of the ANC package in sub-Saharan Afric

    Position of the Polar Front along the western Iberian margin during key cold episodes of the last 45 ka

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    This paper documents the migration of the Polar Front (PF) over the Iberian margin during some of the cold climatic extremes of the last 45 ka. It is based on a compilation of robust and coherent paleohydrological proxies obtained from eleven cores distributed between 36 and 42¬įN. Planktonic őī18O (Globigerina bulloides), ice-rafted detritus concentrations, and the relative abundance of the polar foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral were used to track the PF position. These three data sets, compared from core to core, show a consistent evolution of the sea surface paleohydrology along the Iberian margin over the last 45 ka. We focused on five time slices representative of cold periods under distinct paleoenvironmental forcings: the 8.2 ka event and the Younger Dryas (two recent cold events occurring within high values of summer insolation), Heinrich events 1 and 4 (reflecting major episodes of massive iceberg discharges into the North Atlantic), and the Last Glacial Maximum (typifying the highest ice volume accumulated in the Northern Hemisphere). For each event, we generated schematic maps mirroring past sea surface hydrological conditions. The maps revealed that the Polar Front presence along the Iberian margin was restricted to Heinrich events. The sea surface conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum were close to those at present day, except for the northern sites which briefly experienced subarctic conditions

    Prospective study on severe malaria among in-patients at Bombo regional hospital, Tanga, north-eastern Tanzania

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    In Tanzania, malaria is the major cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for about 30% of all hospital admissions and around 15% of all hospital deaths. Severe anaemia and cerebral malaria are the two main causes of death due to malaria in Tanga, Tanzania. This was a prospective observational hospital-based study conducted from October 2004 to September 2005. Consent was sought from study participants or guardians in the wards. Finger prick blood was collected from each individual for thick and thin smears, blood sugar levels and haemoglobin estimations by Haemocue machine after admission. A total of 494 patients were clinically diagnosed and admitted as cases of severe malaria. Majority of them (55.3%) were children below the age of 5 years. Only 285 out of the total 494 (57.7%) patients had positive blood smears for malaria parasites. Adults aged 20 years and above had the highest rate of cases with fever and blood smear negative for malaria parasites. Commonest clinical manifestations of severe malaria were cerebral malaria (47.3%) and severe anaemia (14.6%), particularly in the under-fives. Case fatality was 3.2% and majority of the deaths occurred in the under-fives and adults aged 20 years and above with negative blood smears. Proper laboratory diagnosis is crucial for case management and reliable data collection. The non-specific nature of malaria symptomatologies limits the use of clinical diagnosis and the IMCI strategy. Strengthening of laboratory investigations to guide case management is recommended

    Risk Factors for and Clinical Outcome of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in a Peri-Urban West-African Birth Cohort

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    BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection worldwide. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes are known to vary with socio-economic background, but few data are available from developing countries, where the overall burden of infectious diseases is frequently high. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of an ongoing birth cohort study in The Gambia among term infants, urine samples were collected at birth and tested by PCR for the presence of CMV DNA. Risk factors for transmission and clinical outcome were assessed, including placental malaria infection. Babies were followed up at home monthly for morbidity and anthropometry, and at one year of age a clinical evaluation was performed. The prevalence of congenital CMV infection was 5.4% (40/741). A higher prevalence of hepatomegaly was the only significant clinical difference at birth. Congenitally infected children were more often first born babies (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-13.7), more frequently born in crowded compounds (adjusted OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.0-8.3) and active placental malaria was more prevalent (adjusted OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.0-8.4). These associations were corrected for maternal age, bed net use and season of birth. During the first year of follow up, mothers of congenitally infected children reported more health complaints for their child. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, the prevalence of congenital CMV among healthy neonates was much higher than previously reported in industrialised countries, and was associated with active placental malaria infection. There were no obvious clinical implications during the first year of life. The effect of early life CMV on the developing infant in the Gambia could be mitigated by environmental factors, such as the high burden of other infections.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Determinants of brain swelling in pediatric and adult cerebral malaria.

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    Cerebral malaria (CM) affects children and adults, but brain swelling is more severe in children. To investigate features associated with brain swelling in malaria, we performed blood profiling and brain MRI in a cohort of pediatric and adult patients with CM in Rourkela, India, and compared them with an African pediatric CM cohort in Malawi. We determined that higher plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) levels and elevated var transcripts that encode for binding to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) were linked to CM at both sites. Machine learning models trained on the African pediatric cohort could classify brain swelling in Indian children CM cases but had weaker performance for adult classification, due to overall lower parasite var transcript levels in this age group and more severe thrombocytopenia in Rourkela adults. Subgrouping of patients with CM revealed higher parasite biomass linked to severe thrombocytopenia and higher Group A-EPCR var transcripts in mild thrombocytopenia. Overall, these findings provide evidence that higher parasite biomass and a subset of Group A-EPCR binding variants are common features in children and adult CM cases, despite age differences in brain swelling

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation