157 research outputs found

    Small parts in the Bernoulli sieve

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    Sampling from a random discrete distribution induced by a `stick-breaking' process is considered. Under a moment condition, it is shown that the asymptotics of the sequence of occupancy numbers, and of the small-parts counts (singletons, doubletons, etc) can be read off from a limiting model involving a unit Poisson point process and a self-similar renewal process on the halfline.Comment: conference pape

    Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Glyphosate and a Glyphosate-Containing Herbicide in Salmonella enterica Isolates Originating from Different Time Periods, Hosts, and Serovars

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    Glyphosate, the active compound of Roundup, is one of the most used pesticides in the world. Its residues are often detected in animal feed, but the impact on the animal gut microbiota and on pathogens of the intestine has not intensively been investigated. In this study, we analyzed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of glyphosate isopropylamine salt and a common glyphosate-containing herbicide formulation in 225 Salmonella enterica isolates by broth microdilution. A bacteriostatic effect of glyphosate on Salmonella growth was detected at the concentration range of 10 to 80 mg/mL for both the active ingredient and the ready-to-use formulation. Time/year of isolation, host species, and serovars revealed a statistically significant influence on MIC values. Recently collected Salmonella isolates had significantly higher MIC values for glyphosate and the glyphosate-containing product compared with isolates collected between 1981 and 1990. Isolates from pigs showed significantly higher MIC values compared with isolates from poultry, and isolates of the Salmonella serovar Typhimurium had significantly higher MIC values than Salmonella Enteritidis and Infantis isolates

    Effect of a glyphosate-containing herbicide on Escherichia coli and Salmonella Ser. Typhimurium in an in vitro rumen simulation system

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    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is the most-used herbicide worldwide. Many studies in the past have shown that residues of the herbicide can be found in many cultivated plants, including those used as livestock feed. Sensitivity to glyphosate varies with bacteria, particularly those residing in the intestine, where microbiota is exposed to glyphosate residues. Therefore, less susceptible pathogenic isolates could have a distinct advantage compared to more sensitive commensal isolates, probably leading to dysbiosis. To determine whether the ruminal growth and survival of pathogenic Escherichia coli or Salmonella serovar Typhimurium are higher when glyphosate residues are present in the feed, an in vitro fermentation trial with a “Rumen Simulation System” (RUSITEC) and a glyphosate-containing commercial formulation was performed. Colony forming units of E. coli and Salmonella ser. Typhimurium decreased steadily in all fermenters, regardless of the herbicide application. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the studied Salmonella and E. coli strains did not change, and antibiotic susceptibility varied only slightly but independent of the glyphosate application. Overall, application of the glyphosate-containing formulation in a worst-case concentration of 10 mg/L neither increased the abundance for the tested E. coli and Salmonella strain in the in vitro fermentation system, nor promoted resistance to glyphosate or antibiotics

    Impact of short-term storage on the quantity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in broiler litter under practical conditions

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    Applying broiler litter containing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) to arable land poses a potential risk for humans to get colonized by contact with contaminated soil or vegetables. Therefore, an inactivation of these bacteria before land application of litter is crucial. We performed 2 short-term litter storage trials (one in summer and winter, respectively), each covering a time span of 5 D to investigate the effectiveness of this method for inactivation of ESBL-producing E. coli in chicken litter. Surface and deep litter samples were taken from a stacked, ESBL-positive chicken litter heap in triplicates in close sampling intervals at the beginning and daily for the last 3 D of the experiments. Samples were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively for ESBL-producing E. coli, total E. coli, and enterococci. Selected isolates were further characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). In the depth of the heap ESBL-producing E. coli were detected quantitatively until 72 h and qualitatively until the end of the trial in winter. In summer detection was possible quantitatively up to 36 h and qualitatively until 72 h. For surface litter samples a qualitative detection of ESBL-producing E. coli was possible in all samples taken in both trials. In the deep samples a significant decrease in the bacterial counts of over 2 Log10 was observed for total E. coli in the winter and for total E. coli and enterococci in the summer. Genetic differences of the isolates analyzed by WGS did not correlate with survival advantage. In conclusion, short-term storage of chicken litter stacked in heaps is a useful tool for the reduction of bacterial counts including ESBL-producing E. coli. However, incomplete inactivation was observed at the surface of the heap and at low ambient temperatures. Therefore, an extension of the storage period in winter as well as turning of the heap to provide aerobic composting conditions should be considered if working and storage capacities are available on the farms

    Performance analysis of anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA using the ROC curve for screening of anaplasmosis in camel populations in Egypt

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    Anaplasmosis is a tick-born and potential zoonotic disease caused by Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. platys and A. capra. Anaplasma marginale affecting bovines and camels causing significant economic losses. Camels as an integral part of the socio-economic lifestyle of nomads in semi-arid to arid ecosystems are prone to suffer from subclinical Anaplasma infections. This study aimed to determine the performance and adaptation of commercial competitive Anaplasma ELISA (cELISA) as a tool for screening the seroprevalence of anaplasmosis whitin the camel populations in Egypt. This study was based on the serological investigation of 437 camel sera collected between 2015 and 2016 during a Q fever prevalence study in Egypt using commercially available cELISA for the detection of antibodies specific for Anaplasma in bovine serum. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, an analysis method for optimizing cutoff values in cELISAs, was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity using 76 true as serological positive (n = 7) and negative (n = 60) for Anaplasma antibodies. ROC curve analysis was done for 7 true positive and 60 true negative bovine samples and 7 true positive and 29 true negative camel samples serum. Real time PCR and/or conventional PCR was applied to confirm Anaplasma spp. specific-DNA in camel serum as an indication of a true positive and true negative for ROC analysis. Chi square analysis was performed to estimate the association between risk factors and anaplasmosis in camels. The cutoff value was determined as 0.42 (p value ≤ 0.001). Data simulation with randomly generated values revealed a cutoff value of 0.417 (p ≤ 0.001) with resulting 58.1% Se and 97.8% Sp. Seven true positive and 29 true negative camel serum samples was confirmed by PCR. Using the estimated cut off, the seroprevalence in the Nile Valley and Delta and the Eastern Desert domain was 47.4% and 46.4%, respectively. The potential risk factors as domains and origin of animals were less significantly associated with the prevalence of anaplasmosis (domains: χ(2) = 41.8, p value ≤ 0.001 and origin: χ(2) = 42.56, p value ≤ 0.001). Raising awareness especially for veterinarians and animal owners will significantly contribute to the best understanding of anaplasmosis in camels in Egypt. Alternative (in silico) validation techniques and preliminary prevalence studies are mandatory towards the control of neglected anaplasmosis in the camel population

    Influence of Immune Status on the Airborne Colonization of Piglets with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Clonal Complex (CC) 398

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    Colonized vertebrates including humans and pigs are to date the main reservoirs of livestock-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). Currently, the mechanisms underlying colonization of pigs are not fully understood. We investigated the influence of piglet pre-immune status on airborne MRSA colonization. Three groups of MRSA-negative piglets were primed and exposed to airborne LA-MRSA (104 colony forming units (cfu)/m3) in an aerosol chamber for 24 h. One group was treated intramuscularly with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg body weight) to imitate weaning stress. The second group was exposed to bacterial endotoxin containing MRSA aerosol. Both conditions play a role in the development of multifactorial diseases and may promote MRSA colonization success. The third group served as control. The piglets' MRSA status was monitored for 21 days via swab samples. At necropsy, specific tissues and organs were analyzed. Blood was collected to examine specific immunological parameters. The duration of MRSA colonization was not extended in both treated groups compared to the control group, indicating the two immune-status influencing factors do not promote MRSA colonization. Blood sample analysis confirmed a mild dexamethasone-induced immune suppression and typical endotoxin-related changes in peripheral blood. Of note, the low-dose dexamethasone treatment showed a trend of increased MRSA clearance

    Microbial and serological effects of vaccination of sows and suckling piglets with an attenuated live Salmonella vaccine

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    The aim of the study was to investigate the use of the orally applicated attenuated Salmonella vaccine Salmoporc® (which is already licensed for runners and fattening pigs) in three days old suckling piglets. In particular, the tolerance, colonisation kinetics, humoral immune response, protection against challenge infection with Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 and a possible interference of maternal antibodies on the success of vaccination have been investigated
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