3,262 research outputs found

    Raising the critical temperature by disorder in unconventional superconductors mediated by spin fluctuations

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    We propose a mechanism whereby disorder can enhance the transition temperature Tc of an unconventional superconductor with pairing driven by exchange of spin fluctuations. The theory is based on a self-consistent real space treatment of pairing in the disordered one-band Hubbard model. It has been demonstrated before that impurities can enhance pairing by softening the spin fluctuations locally; here, we consider the competing effect of pair-breaking by the screened Coulomb potential also present. We show that, depending on the impurity potential strength and proximity to magnetic order, this mechanism results in a weakening of the disorder-dependent Tc-suppression rate expected from Abrikosov-Gor'kov theory, or even in disorder-generated Tc enhancements.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures + Supplementary Materia

    Superconducting phase diagram of itinerant antiferromagnets

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    We study the phase diagram of the Hubbard model in the weak-coupling limit for coexisting spin-density-wave order and spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity. Both longitudinal and transverse spin fluctuations contribute significantly to the effective interaction potential, which creates Cooper pairs of the quasi-particles of the antiferromagnetic metallic state. We find a dominant dx2y2d_{x^2-y^2}-wave solution in both electron- and hole-doped cases. In the quasi-spin triplet channel, the longitudinal fluctuations give rise to an effective attraction supporting a pp-wave gap, but are overcome by repulsive contributions from the transverse fluctuations which disfavor pp-wave pairing compared to dx2y2d_{x^2-y^2}. The sub-leading pair instability is found to be in the gg-wave channel, but complex admixtures of dd and gg are not energetically favored since their nodal structures coincide. Inclusion of interband pairing, in which each fermion in the Cooper pair belongs to a different spin-density-wave band, is considered for a range of electron dopings in the regime of well-developed magnetic order. We demonstrate that these interband pairing gaps, which are non-zero in the magnetic state, must have the same parity under inversion as the normal intraband gaps. The self-consistent solution to the full system of five coupled gap equations give intraband and interband pairing gaps of dx2y2d_{x^2-y^2} structure and similar gap magnitude. In conclusion, the dx2y2d_{x^2-y^2} gap dominates for both hole and electron doping inside the spin-density-wave phase.Comment: 14 pages, 9 figure

    Local modulations of the spin-fluctuation mediated pairing interaction by impurities in d-wave superconductors

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    We present a self-consistent real space formulation of spin-fluctuation mediated d-wave pairing. By calculating all relevant inhomogeneous spin and charge susceptibilities in real space within the random phase approximation (RPA), we obtain the effective pairing interaction and study its spatial dependence near both local potential and hopping impurities. A remarkably large enhancement of the pairing interaction may be obtained near the impurity site. We discuss the relevance of our result to inhomogeneities observed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy on the surface of cuprate superconductors.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figure

    GPS water level measurements for Indonesia's Tsunami Early Warning System

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    On Boxing Day 2004, a severe tsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Northern Sumatra causing a large number of casualties. At this time, neither an offshore buoy network was in place to measure tsunami waves, nor a system to disseminate tsunami warnings to local governmental entities. Since then, buoys have been developed by Indonesia and Germany, complemented by NOAA's Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) buoys, and have been moored offshore Sumatra and Java. The suite of sensors for offshore tsunami detection in Indonesia has been advanced by adding GPS technology for water level measurements. <br><br> The usage of GPS buoys in tsunami warning systems is a relatively new approach. The concept of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (Rudloff et al., 2009) combines GPS technology and ocean bottom pressure (OBP) measurements. Especially for near-field installations where the seismic noise may deteriorate the OBP data, GPS-derived sea level heights provide additional information. <br><br> The GPS buoy technology is precise enough to detect medium to large tsunamis of amplitudes larger than 10 cm. The analysis presented here suggests that for about 68% of the time, tsunamis larger than 5 cm may be detectable

    What is Socialism Today? Conceptions of a Cooperative Economy

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    Socialism is back on the political agenda in the United States. Politicians and some economists who identify as socialists, however, do not discuss property relations, a topic that was central in the intellectual history of socialism, but rather limit themselves to advocacy of economic reforms, funded through taxation, that would tilt the income distribution in favor of the disadvantaged in society. In the absence of a more precise discussion of property relations, the presumption must be that ownership of firms would remain private or corporate with privately owned shares. This formula is identified with the Nordic and other western European social democracies. In this article, I propose several variants of socialism, which are characterized by different kinds of property relation in the ownership of society’s firms. In addition to varying property relations, I include as part of socialism a conception of what it means for a socialist society to possess a cooperative ethos, in place of the individualistic ethos of capitalist society. Differences in ethea are modeled as differences in the manner in which economic agents optimize. With an individualistic ethos, economic agents optimize in the manner of John Nash, while under a cooperative ethos, many optimize in the manner of Immanuel Kant. It is shown that Kantian optimization can decentralize resource allocation in ways that neatly separate issues of income distribution from those of efficiency. In particular, remuneration of labor and capital contributions to production need no longer be linked to marginal-product pricing of these factors, as is the key to efficiency with capitalist property relations. I present simulations of socialist income distributions, and offer some tentative conclusions concerning how we should conceive of socialism today

    Effects of a brief mindfulness-based intervention on emotional regulation and levels of mindfulness in senior students

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    Mindfulness-based interventions have been applied in diverse populations and achieved mental health benefits. This study examined the effects of a brief mindfulness program for emotional regulation and levels of mindfulness on senior students in Brazil. The intervention consisted of six weekly meetings attended by 30 participants. It is a pre-experimental research, with pre- and post-test comparative and correlation measurements. The preliminary results, which relied on parametrical and non-parametrical tests, revealed a reduction in total emotional regulation difficulties (p = 0.0001; r = − 0.55). Also, there was an increase in the levels of mindfulness in the subtests for both dimensions under evaluation: “Awareness” (p = 0.0001; d = 0.77) and “Acceptance” (p = 0.048; d = 0.37). By associating the amount of meditative practices performed by students with the variables, a significant positive correlation was found with the mindfulness dimension “Awareness” (rP = 0.422; p = 0.020), and there was a significant negative correlation with Difficulties in emotion regulation (rS = − 0.478; p = 0.008) and with its respective subscales “Non-acceptance” (rS = − 0.654; p = 0.0001) and “Clarity” (rS = − 0.463; p = 0.010). In conclusion, the application of a brief mindfulness-based intervention is promising in Brazilian university contexts; moreover, it can bring benefits to students, e.g., an increase in emotion regulation as well as in levels of mindfulness. We suggest that further research should use an experimental design and follow-up.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio