25 research outputs found

    The RNA-binding landscape of RBM10 and its role in alternative splicing regulation in models of mouse early development

    Get PDF
    Mutations in the RNA-binding protein, RBM10, result in a human syndromic form of cleft palate, termed TARP syndrome. A role for RBM10 in alternative splicing regulation has been previously demonstrated in human cell lines. To uncover the cellular functions of RBM10 in a cell line that is relevant to the phenotype observed in TARP syndrome, we used iCLIP to identify its endogenous RNA targets in a mouse embryonic mandibular cell line. We observed that RBM10 binds to pre-mRNAs with significant enrichment in intronic regions, in agreement with a role for this protein in pre-mRNA splicing. In addition to protein-coding transcripts, RBM10 also binds to a variety of cellular RNAs, including non-coding RNAs, such as spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs, U2 and U12. RNA-seq was used to investigate changes in gene expression and alternative splicing in RBM10 KO mouse mandibular cells and also in mouse ES cells. We uncovered a role for RBM10 in the regulation of alternative splicing of common transcripts in both cell lines but also identified cell-type specific events. Importantly, those pre-mRNAs that display changes in alternative splicing also contain RBM10 iCLIP tags, suggesting a direct role of RBM10 in these events. Finally, we show that depletion of RBM10 in mouse ES cells leads to proliferation defects and to gross alterations in their differentiation potential. These results demonstrate a role for RBM10 in the regulation of alternative splicing in two cell models of mouse early development and suggests that mutations in RBM10 could lead to splicing changes that affect normal palate development and cause human disease.D.R.F. and J.F.C. were supported by Core funding from the Medical Research Council. J.F.C had also funding from the Wellcome Trust (Grant 095518/Z/11/Z). E.E. was supported by MINECO (Ministerio de Econom├şa y Competitividad) and FEDER (Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional) through grant BIO2014-52566-R, by Sandra Ibarra Foundation for Cancer and by AGAUR (Ag├Ęncia de Gesti├│ d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca) through grant 2014-SGR1121

    Deciphering endothelial heterogeneity in health and disease at single cell resolution: progress and perspectives

    Get PDF
    Endothelial cells (ECs) constitute the inner lining of vascular beds in mammals and are crucial for homeostatic regulation of blood vessel physiology, but also play a key role in pathogenesis of many diseases, thereby representing realistic therapeutic targets. However, it has become evident that ECs are heterogeneous, encompassing several subtypes with distinct functions, which makes EC targeting and modulation in the disease-context challenging. The rise of the new single cell era has led to an emergence of studies aimed at interrogating transcriptome diversity along the vascular tree, and has revolutionized our understanding of EC heterogeneity from both a physiological and pathophysiological context. Here, we discuss recent landmark studies aimed at teasing apart the heterogeneous nature of ECs. We cover driving (epi)genetic, transcriptomic and metabolic forces underlying EC heterogeneity in health and disease, as well as current strategies used to combat disease-enriched EC phenotypes, and propose strategies to transcend largely descriptive heterogeneity towards prioritization and functional validation of therapeutically targetable drivers of EC diversity. Lastly, we provide an overview of the most recent advances and hurdles in single EC OMICs

    The RNA-binding profile of Acinus, a peripheral component of the Exon junction complex, reveals its role in splicing regulation

    Get PDF
    Acinus (apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer in the nucleus) is an RNA-binding protein (RBP) originally identified for its role in apoptosis. It was later found to be an auxiliary component of the exon junction complex (EJC), which is deposited at exon junctions as a consequence of pre-mRNA splicing. To uncover the cellular functions of Acinus and investigate its role in splicing, we mapped its endogenous RNA targets using the cross-linking immunoprecipitation protocol (iCLIP). We observed that Acinus binds to pre-mRNAs, associating specifically to a subset of suboptimal introns, but also to spliced mRNAs. We also confirmed the presence of Acinus as a peripheral factor of the EJC. RNA-seq was used to investigate changes in gene expression and alternative splicing following siRNA-mediated depletion of Acinus in HeLa cells. This analysis revealed that Acinus is preferentially required for the inclusion of specific alternative cassette exons and also controls the faithful splicing of a subset of introns. Moreover, a large number of splicing changes can be related to Acinus binding, suggesting a direct role of Acinus in exon and intron definition. In particular, Acinus regulates the splicing of DFFA/ICAD transcript, a major regulator of DNA fragmentation. Globally, the genome-wide identification of RNA targets of Acinus revealed its role in splicing regulation as well as its involvement in other cellular pathways, including cell cycle progression. Altogether, this study uncovers new cellular functions of an RBP transiently associated with the EJC.J.F.C. was supported by Core funding from the Medical Research Council and by the Wellcome Trust (grant 095518/Z/11/Z). B.J.B. was supported by grants from the CIHR (Canadian Institutes of Health Research). B.J.B. holds the Banbury Chair in Medical Research at the University of Toronto. E.E. was supported by MINECO (Ministerio de Econom├şa y Competitividad) and FEDER (Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional) through grant BIO2014-52566-R, by Sandra Ibarra Foundation for Cancer, and by AGAUR (Ag├Ęncia de Gesti├│ d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca) through grant 2014-SGR1121

    The LINC00961 transcript and its encoded micropeptide SPAAR regulate endothelial cell function

    Get PDF
    AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play functional roles in physiology and disease, yet understanding of their contribution to endothelial cell (EC) function is incomplete. We identified lncRNAs regulated during EC differentiation and investigated the role of LINC00961 and its encoded micropeptide, small regulatory polypeptide of amino acid response (SPAAR), in EC function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Deep sequencing of human embryonic stem cell differentiation to ECs was combined with Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) RNA-seq data from vascular cells, identifying 278 endothelial enriched genes, including 6 lncRNAs. Expression of LINC00961, first annotated as an lncRNA but reassigned as a protein-coding gene for the SPAAR micropeptide, was increased during the differentiation and was EC enriched. LINC00961 transcript depletion significantly reduced EC adhesion, tube formation, migration, proliferation, and barrier integrity in primary ECs. Overexpression of the SPAAR open reading frame increased tubule formation; however, overexpression of the full-length transcript did not, despite production of SPAAR. Furthermore, overexpression of an ATG mutant of the full-length transcript reduced network formation, suggesting a bona fide non-coding RNA function of the transcript with opposing effects to SPAAR. As the LINC00961 locus is conserved in mouse, we generated an LINC00961 locus knockout (KO) mouse that underwent hind limb ischaemia (HLI) to investigate the angiogenic role of this locus in vivo. In agreement with in vitro data, KO animals had a reduced capillary density in the ischaemic adductor muscle after 7ÔÇëdays. Finally, to characterize LINC00961 and SPAAR independent functions in ECs, we performed pull-downs of both molecules and identified protein-binding partners. LINC00961 RNA binds the G-actin sequestering protein thymosin beta-4x (T╬▓4) and T╬▓4 depletion phenocopied the overexpression of the ATG mutant. SPAAR binding partners included the actin-binding protein, SYNE1. CONCLUSION: The LINC00961 locus regulates EC function in vitro and in vivo. The gene produces two molecules with opposing effects on angiogenesis: SPAAR and LINC00961

    Nuclear S-nitrosylation impacts tissue regeneration in zebrafish

    Get PDF
    The role of the post-translational modifications in tissue regeneration is still not clearly understood. Here, the authors show that many nuclear proteins change S-nitrosylation state in the regenerating zebrafish tailfin, highlighting the importance of Kdm1a S-nitrosylation in the repair process

    A Novel Plaque Enriched Long Noncoding RNA in Atherosclerotic Macrophage Regulation (PELATON)

    Get PDF
    Objective: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an emergent class of molecules with diverse functional roles, widely expressed in human physiology and disease. Although some lncRNAs have been identified in cardiovascular disease, their potential as novel targets in the prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We set out to discover important lncRNAs in unstable plaque and gain insight into their functional relevance. Approach and Results: Analysis of RNA sequencing previously performed on stable and unstable atherosclerotic plaque identified a panel of 47 differentially regulated lncRNAs. We focused on LINC01272, a lncRNA upregulated in unstable plaque previously detected in inflammatory bowel disease, which we termed PELATON (plaque enriched lncRNA in atherosclerotic and inflammatory bowel macrophage regulation). Here, we demonstrate that PELATON is highly monocyte- and macrophage-specific across vascular cell types, and almost entirely nuclear by cellular fractionation (90%-98%). In situ hybridization confirmed enrichment of PELATON in areas of plaque inflammation, colocalizing with macrophages around the shoulders and necrotic core of human plaque sections. Consistent with its nuclear localization, and despite containing a predicted open reading frame, PELATON did not demonstrate any protein-coding potential in vitro. Functionally, knockdown of PELATON significantly reduced phagocytosis, lipid uptake and reactive oxygen species production in high-content analysis, with a significant reduction in phagocytosis independently validated. Furthermore, CD36, a key mediator of phagocytic oxLDL (oxidized low-density lipoprotein) uptake was significantly reduced with PELATON knockdown. Conclusions: PELATON is a nuclear expressed, monocyte- and macrophage-specific lncRNA, upregulated in unstable atherosclerotic plaque. Knockdown of PELATON affects cellular functions associated with plaque progression

    Identifying cell enriched miRNAs in kidney injury and repair

    Get PDF
    Small noncoding RNAs, miRNAs (miRNAs), are emerging as important modulators in the pathogenesis of kidney disease, with potential as biomarkers of kidney disease onset, progression, or therapeutic efficacy. Bulk tissue small RNA-sequencing (sRNA-Seq) and microarrays are widely used to identify dysregulated miRNA expression but are limited by the lack of precision regarding the cellular origin of the miRNA. In this study, we performed cell-specific sRNA-Seq on tubular cells, endothelial cells, PDGFR-╬▓+ cells, and macrophages isolated from injured and repairing kidneys in the murine reversible unilateral ureteric obstruction model. We devised an unbiased bioinformatics pipeline to define the miRNA enrichment within these cell populations, constructing a miRNA catalog of injury and repair. Our analysis revealed that a significant proportion of cell-specific miRNAs in healthy animals were no longer specific following injury. We then applied this knowledge of the relative cell specificity of miRNAs to deconvolute bulk miRNA expression profiles in the renal cortex in murine models and human kidney disease. Finally, we used our data-driven approach to rationally select macrophage-enriched miR-16-5p and miR-18a-5p and demonstrate that they are promising urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury in renal transplant recipients
    corecore