83,623 research outputs found

    Still minding the gap? Reflecting on transitions between concepts of information in varied domains

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    This conceptual paper, a contribution to the tenth anniversary special issue of information, gives a cross-disciplinary review of general and unified theories of information. A selective literature review is used to update a 2013 article on bridging the gaps between conceptions of information in different domains, including material from the physical and biological sciences, from the humanities and social sciences including library and information science, and from philosophy. A variety of approaches and theories are reviewed, including those of Brenner, Brier, Burgin and Wu, Capurro, Cárdenas-García and Ireland, Hidalgo, Hofkirchner, Kolchinsky and Wolpert, Floridi, Mingers and Standing, Popper, and Stonier. The gaps between disciplinary views of information remain, although there has been progress, and increasing interest, in bridging them. The solution is likely to be either a general theory of sufficient flexibility to cope with multiple meanings of information, or multiple and distinct theories for different domains, but with a complementary nature, and ideally boundary spanning concepts

    Constitutive relationships for anisotropic high-temperature alloys

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    A constitutive theory is presented for representing the anisotropic viscoplastic behavior of high temperature alloys that posses directional properties resulting from controlled grain growth or solidification. The theory is an extension of a viscoplastic model that was applied in structural analyses involving isotropic metals. Anisotropy is introduced through the definition of a vector field that identifies a preferential (solidification) direction at each material point. Following the development of a full multiaxial theory, application is made to homogeneously stressed elements in pure shear and to a uniaxially stressed rectangular block in plane stress with the stress direction oriented at an arbitrary angle with the material direction. It is shown that an additional material parameter introduced to characterize the degree of anisotropy can be determined on the basis of simple creep tests

    A continuous damage model based on stepwise-stress creep rupture tests

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    A creep damage accumulation model is presented that makes use of the Kachanov damage rate concept with a provision accounting for damage that results from a variable stress history. This is accomplished through the introduction of an additional term in the Kachanov rate equation that is linear in the stress rate. Specification of the material functions and parameters in the model requires two types of constituting a data base: (1) standard constant-stress creep rupture tests, and (2) a sequence of two-step creep rupture tests

    On iterative solutions for quantum-mechanical bound states

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    Iterative solutions for quantum mechanical bound state

    A continuum deformation theory for metal-matrix composites at high temperature

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    A continuum theory is presented for representing the high temperature, time dependent, hereditary deformation behavior of metallic composites that can be idealized as pseudohomogeneous continua with locally definable directional characteristics. Homogenization of textured materials (molecular, granular, fibrous) and applicability of continuum mechanics in structural applications depends on characteristic body dimensions, the severity of gradients (stress, temperature, etc.) in the structure and the relative size of the internal structure (cell size) of the material. The point of view taken here is that the composite is a material in its own right, with its own properties that can be measured and specified for the composite as a whole

    Unified constitutive model development for metal matrix composites at high temperature

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    Structural alloys used in high temperature applications exhibit complex thermomechanical behavior that is time dependent and hereditary. Recent attention is being focused on metal matrix composite materials for high temperature applications where they exhibit all the complexities of conventional alloys and their strong anisotropy adds further complexities. Here, a proven constitutive model for isotropic materials in which the inelastic strain rate and internal state are expressible as gradients of a dissipation potential is taken to depend on invariants that reflect local transverse isotropy. Applications illustrate the capability of the theory of representing the time dependent, hereditary, anisotropic behavior typical of these materials at high temperature
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