10,111 research outputs found

    Pain catastrophising predicts alcohol hangover severity and symptoms

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    Alcohol hangover is a cause of considerable social and economic burden. Identification of predictors of alcohol hangover severity have the potential to contribute to reductions in costs associated with both absenteeism/presenteeism and health care. Pain catastrophising (PC) is the tendency to ruminate and describe a pain experience in more exaggerated terms. The current study examines the possibility that this cognitive coping strategy may influence experience of alcohol hangover. The aims of the current study were to (1) examine the relationship between hangover severity and PC, (2) explore and identify discreet factors within the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS) and (3) explore whether independent factors/dimensions of acute hangover are differentially predicted by PC. A retrospective survey (n = 86) was conducted in which participants completed the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS); the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS); a questionnaire pertaining to the amount of alcohol consumed; and a demographic information questionnaire. Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between PC and hangover severity scores and demonstrated that PC was, in fact, a stronger predictor of perceived hangover severity than estimated peak blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs). Factor analysis of the AHS scale, resulted in the identification of two distinct symptom dimensions; ‘Headache and thirst’, and ‘Gastric and cardiovascular’ symptoms. Regression analyses showed that both eBAC and PCS score were significantly associated with ‘Headache and thirst’. However, only PCS score was associated with ‘Gastric and cardiovascular’ symptoms. These novel findings implicate a role for cognitive coping strategies in self-reports of alcohol hangover severity, and may have implications for understanding behavioural response to hangover, as well as suggesting that hangover and PC may be important factors mediating the motivation to drink and/or abuse alcohol, with potential implications in addiction research. Furthermore, these findings suggest that distinct alcohol hangover symptoms may be associated with different mechanisms underlying the experience of alcohol hangover

    Yeast gene CMR1/YDL156W is consistently co-expressed with genes participating in DNA-metabolic processes in a variety of stringent clustering experiments

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    © 2013 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.The binarization of consensus partition matrices (Bi-CoPaM) method has, among its unique features, the ability to perform ensemble clustering over the same set of genes from multiple microarray datasets by using various clustering methods in order to generate tunable tight clusters. Therefore, we have used the Bi-CoPaM method to the most synchronized 500 cell-cycle-regulated yeast genes from different microarray datasets to produce four tight, specific and exclusive clusters of co-expressed genes. We found 19 genes formed the tightest of the four clusters and this included the gene CMR1/YDL156W, which was an uncharacterized gene at the time of our investigations. Two very recent proteomic and biochemical studies have independently revealed many facets of CMR1 protein, although the precise functions of the protein remain to be elucidated. Our computational results complement these biological results and add more evidence to their recent findings of CMR1 as potentially participating in many of the DNA-metabolism processes such as replication, repair and transcription. Interestingly, our results demonstrate the close co-expressions of CMR1 and the replication protein A (RPA), the cohesion complex and the DNA polymerases α, δ and ɛ, as well as suggest functional relationships between CMR1 and the respective proteins. In addition, the analysis provides further substantial evidence that the expression of the CMR1 gene could be regulated by the MBF complex. In summary, the application of a novel analytic technique in large biological datasets has provided supporting evidence for a gene of previously unknown function, further hypotheses to test, and a more general demonstration of the value of sophisticated methods to explore new large datasets now so readily generated in biological experiments.National Institute for Health Researc

    Bounding inconsistency using a novel threshold metric for dead reckoning update packet generation

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    Human-to-human interaction across distributed applications requires that sufficient consistency be maintained among participants in the face of network characteristics such as latency and limited bandwidth. The level of inconsistency arising from the network is proportional to the network delay, and thus a function of bandwidth consumption. Distributed simulation has often used a bandwidth reduction technique known as dead reckoning that combines approximation and estimation in the communication of entity movement to reduce network traffic, and thus improve consistency. However, unless carefully tuned to application and network characteristics, such an approach can introduce more inconsistency than it avoids. The key tuning metric is the distance threshold. This paper questions the suitability of the standard distance threshold as a metric for use in the dead reckoning scheme. Using a model relating entity path curvature and inconsistency, a major performance related limitation of the distance threshold technique is highlighted. We then propose an alternative time—space threshold criterion. The time—space threshold is demonstrated, through simulation, to perform better for low curvature movement. However, it too has a limitation. Based on this, we further propose a novel hybrid scheme. Through simulation and live trials, this scheme is shown to perform well across a range of curvature values, and places bounds on both the spatial and absolute inconsistency arising from dead reckoning

    Exploring the use of local consistency measures as thresholds for dead reckoning update packet generation

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    Human-to-human interaction across distributed applications requires that sufficient consistency be maintained among participants in the face of network characteristics such as latency and limited bandwidth. Techniques and approaches for reducing bandwidth usage can minimize network delays by reducing the network traffic and therefore better exploiting available bandwidth. However, these approaches induce inconsistencies within the level of human perception. Dead reckoning is a well-known technique for reducing the number of update packets transmitted between participating nodes. It employs a distance threshold for deciding when to generate update packets. This paper questions the use of such a distance threshold in the context of absolute consistency and it highlights a major drawback with such a technique. An alternative threshold criterion based on time and distance is examined and it is compared to the distance only threshold. A drawback with this proposed technique is also identified and a hybrid threshold criterion is then proposed. However, the trade-off between spatial and temporal inconsistency remains

    Lexico-semantic Impairment in a Case of HSVE to the Left Anterior Temporal Lobe

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    This study investigates the role of the left anterior temporal lobe (aTL) in semantics. Clinical and neuroscientific investigations propose the aTL bilaterally (BaTL), are implicated in semantics, based on findings that: (1) disruption to BaTL results in a multimodal semantic impairment, observed in semantic dementia (SD) and herpes-simplex-viral-encephalitis (HSVE); (2) impairment can be mimicked by inducing a “virtual lesion” (repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation) to BaTL in neurologically intact participants; (3) neuroimaging studies identify BaTL activation for semantic tasks (Fig 1, Lambon Ralph et al., 2012, for points 1-3). Anchored in this evidence is the assumption that semantic impairment will result from BaTL damage only. Recently, investigators have suggested a loss of semantic knowledge can result from LaTL damage. Using sensitive tests, this can be observed in chronic stroke (Schwartz et al., 2009) and temporal lobe resection for epilepsy patients (rTLE: Antonucci et al., 2008; Lambon Ralph et al., 2012). Of interest is the striking similarity of rTLE and very early stages of SD (when atrophy is left sided and overlaps with resection) – impairment is mild and the primary symptom is anomia and/or forgetfulness. This builds upon the possibility that a semantic weakness may result from a LaTL lesion. Whilst rTLE studies have provided insight into this notion, one must be cautious – pre-surgical seizures may initiate changes in brain organisation/normal development, and reorganisation of function could occur post-surgery. Chronic stroke studies are problematic since lesions are large and encompass other areas that may contribute to the impairment. Consequently, whether LaTL lesions results in semantic impairment is not entirely understood. The goal of the present case study was to initiate an investigation to determine whether semantic impairment is in fact present following LaTL lesion

    Triggering and measuring social inhibitory response in humans immersed in interactions with virtual humans

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    The aim of the proposed study is to determine if a virtual human can evoke a measurable inhibitory response to anti-social stimuli within the prefrontal cortex. Justification, protocol and demonstrator are described here. The work follows a previous study demonstrating that neural inhibitory responses can be measured within an immersive virtual reality display. We have adopted the approach of combining functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) and virtual reality head-mounted display. Haemodynamic changes will be measured in healthy participants and subsequently, subjects with mental deficits, as both engage in interactions that seek to evoke a response that would normally be inhibited. Disinhibition is an aspect of social response exaggerated by several deficits of mind, including dementia, autism and Tourette’s syndrome. This research could improve tools for understanding, diagnosis and treatment of such condition

    Multiplicative random walk Metropolis-Hastings on the real line

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    In this article we propose multiplication based random walk Metropolis Hastings (MH) algorithm on the real line. We call it the random dive MH (RDMH) algorithm. This algorithm, even if simple to apply, was not studied earlier in Markov chain Monte Carlo literature. The associated kernel is shown to have standard properties like irreducibility, aperiodicity and Harris recurrence under some mild assumptions. These ensure basic convergence (ergodicity) of the kernel. Further the kernel is shown to be geometric ergodic for a large class of target densities on R\mathbb{R}. This class even contains realistic target densities for which random walk or Langevin MH are not geometrically ergodic. Three simulation studies are given to demonstrate the mixing property and superiority of RDMH to standard MH algorithms on real line. A share-price return data is also analyzed and the results are compared with those available in the literature

    Tracking the seasonal calcification of Cyprideis torosa (Crustacea, Ostracoda) using Mg/Ca-inferred temperatures, and its implications for palaeotemperature reconstruction

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    Ostracod shell chemistry data are widely used for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Despite this, there has been little systematic research into the implications of the timing of calcification or the duration of each moult stage. Consequently, it is unclear whether palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are recording restricted (inter-seasonal) time periods or reflect the mean annual conditions. The seasonality of shell formation can therefore have implications for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on geochemical signatures, especially palaeotemperature, particularly in environments that show large inter-annual variations in water conditions. Cyprideis torosa is a geographically widespread and eurytopic species that has great potential for a range of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, but inhabits environments with large seasonal and inter-annual variation. Using hourly water and air temperature data, ostracod shell and surface water chemistry from a shallow coastal pond in SE UK, we improve knowledge of the timing of Cyprideis torosa calcification, and thus our understanding of the potential seasonality of signals in palaeotemperature datasets. We suggest seasonal calcification in spring and autumn, with persistence at the adult life stage for up to 12-18 months. Sr/Ca values of C. torosa appear to reflect a Sr/Cawater control on calcification timing and have no temperature dependence. For Mg/Ca, we show a minimum temperature control on calcification of 7 ˚C, with C. torosa Mg/Ca-inferred temperatures broadly tracking spring and autumn temperatures