64 research outputs found

    Concept selection and interactive design of an orthodontic functional appliance

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    Demand for innovation represents a driver not only in the industrial field but also in niche markets such as orthodontics. Among different type of orthodontic devices, functional appliances are used for the correction of class II skeletal malocclusion, mostly in young patients. In a previous study based on a systematic design approach, several concepts were generated for this device. This work shortly introduces the concept selection and the interactive design process of the device. The concept consisting of two-side guiding surfaces, obtained by TRIZ inventive principles, has been selected by the decision matrix. This concept consists in guiding the jaw movements without any connections between the parts of the device. Operating on patient morphometrics parameters, the proposed approach allows to establish a virtual interaction during the design of the device by facilitating the collaboration between orthodontist, dental technician, designer and the software, through a dedicated user interface. Dedicated algorithms were also developed to simulate the occlusion correction and the mandible path, and to support the geometric modelling in a virtual environment. As a result, the proposed approach allows manufacturing patient-customized devices using a digital interactive workflow in an innovative way

    Epidemiological trends in nosocomial candidemia in intensive care

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    BACKGROUND: Infection represents a frequent complication among patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and mortality is high. In particular, the incidence of fungal infections, especially due to Candida spp., has been increasing during the last years. METHODS: In a retrospective study we studied the etiology of candidemia in critically ill patients over a five-year period (1999–2003) in the ICU of the San Martino University Hospital in Genoa, Italy. RESULTS: In total, 182 episodes of candidaemia were identified, with an average incidence of 2.22 episodes/10 000 patient-days/year (range 1.25–3.06 episodes). Incidence of candidemia increased during the study period from 1.25 in 1999 to 3.06/10 000 patient-days/year in 2003. Overall, 40% of the fungemia episodes (74/182) were due to C.albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis(23%), C.glabrata (15%), C.tropicalis (9%) and other species (13%). Candidemia due to non-albicans species increased and this was apparently correlated with an increasing use of azoles for prophylaxis or empirical treatment. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a shift in the species of Candida causing fungemia in a medical and surgical ICU population during a 5 year period. The knowledge of the local epidemiological trends in Candida species isolated in blood cultures is important to guide therapeutic choices

    Lung function assessed by home forced oscillation and self reported symptoms during COPD exacerbations

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    CHROMED (clinical trials for elderly people with multiple diseases, www.chromed.eu) is an EU-funded project involving 9 partners from 7 European countries aimed at evaluating the impact of a new home care approach to reduce costs and improve quality of life in elderly patients with COPD and comorbidity. The trial involves 300 patients with a prior history of exacerbations randomly assigned to a monitoring or observational arm. Monitored patients performed daily self-assessment of lung mechanics with a FOT (Forced Oscillation Technique) device (RESMON PRO DIARY, Restech srl, Italy) and completed a symptom diary card on touchscreen device (HOME PATIENT MONITOR, EBM srl, Italy). Any detected worsening in lung mechanics generated an alert triggering a phone interview directed at verifying the patient's status and optimizing treatment. By the end of March 2015, 70 monitored patients had completed the trial resulting in 16198 measurements with an adherence of 90.1%. Based on lung mechanics, 311 worsening events were detected, resulting in 0.65±0.3 alerts/patient/month. At least one major symptom (dyspnea, sputum purulence and volume) was reported in 70% of events and 41% were associated with an exacerbation according to diary cards (Seemungal et al., Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998). A total of 77 exacerbations were confirmed during the phone interview and treated, but 48% of them were not associated with an exacerbation defined by diary cards only. These results suggest that a significant percentage of exacerbations cannot be identified by diary cards only. Self-assessment of lung mechanics using FOT provides complementary information which can be useful to manage COPD patients at home
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