774 research outputs found

    A study of the compliance of alarm installations in Perth, Western Australia: Are security alarm systemsbeing installed to Australian Standard AS2201.1 - systems installed in a client\u27s premises.

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    This study presented an overview of the training available to intruder alarm installers. A survey of domestic and commercial intruder alarm systems (n=20) were completed across Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area. The gathered data were evaluated against Australian Standard AS2201.1 for intruder alarm systems, to determine whether alarm installations comply with two parts of the standard, being that of control panel location and zone supervision. AS2201.1 requires that intruder alarm control equipment shall be located within the alarmed area, located outside the entry/exit point and operate as dual endofline supervision. The study presents significant findings into the compliance of installed intruder alarm systems. A significant proportion of the intruder alarms measured did not comply with AS2201.1, with the panel located outside an alarmed area (30%), located in the entry/exit point (15%) and not capable of dual endofline supervision (30%). These items contravene Australian Standard AS2201.1. Assumptions suggest that noncompliance is due to a lack of industry focused vocational training, industry self regulation and supervision, licensing regime and legislation. No single aspect could be considered ineffective; rather it is argued that all of these areas need to be addressed

    Nucleotide Sequence of the Streptococcin A-FF22 Lantibiotic Regulon: Model for Production of the Lantibiotic SA-FF22 by Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes

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    Streptococcin A-FF22 (SA-FF22) is a type AII linear lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus pyogenes strain FF22. Sequence analysis of an approximate 10 kb region of DNA showed it to contain nine open reading frames arranged in three operons responsible for regulation, biosynthesis and immunity of SA-FF22. This region is organized similarly to the Lactococcus lactis lacticin 481 region, however, unlike lacticin 481, a two-component regulatory system is essential for SA-FF22 production. located immediately downstream of the scn region is a putative transposase gene, the presence of which supports earlier data that indicated a mobile nature to this region. (©) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

    A Study of Distance Education in Hong Kong

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    The project, A Study of Distance Education at Hong Kong Universities, researched the availability of distance education programs in Hong Kong. The study explored the teaching methods and tools implemented in these programs. We were able to make this information available to Hong Kong universities in order to promote organization and collaboration between the programs

    Markerless Escherichia coli rrn Deletion Strains for Genetic Determination of Ribosomal Binding Sites

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    Single-copy rrn strains facilitate genetic ribosomal studies in Escherichia coli. Consecutive markerless deletion of rrn operons resulted in slower growth upon inactivation of the fourth copy, which was reversed by supplying transfer RNA genes encoded in rrn operons in trans. Removal of the sixth, penultimate rrn copy led to a reduced growth rate due to limited rrn gene dosage. Whole-genome sequencing of variants of single-copy rrn strains revealed duplications of large stretches of genomic DNA. The combination of selective pressure, resulting from the decreased growth rate, and the six identical remaining scar sequences, facilitating homologous recombination events, presumably leads to elevated genomic instability

    Development of a Novel Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method to Detect Guiana Extended-Spectrum (GES) β-Lactamase Genes in \u3cem\u3ePseudomonas aeruginosa\u3c/em\u3e

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    Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospitalized patients are often fatal, and nosocomial infections caused by Guiana extended-spectrum (GES) β-lactamase-producing strains are of growing concern. Several genotypes of the GES β-lactamase gene (blaGES) include a single missense mutation, a change from G to A at nucleotide position 493 (G493A) that changes glycine to serine; the mutant enzyme exhibits carbapenemase activity. Rapid and reliable identification of drug-resistance is important in clinical settings; however, culture methods remain the gold standard. Conventional and real-time PCR cannot identify carbapenemase-producing genotypes, and direct DNA sequencing is essential. We established a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect various genotypes of blaGES and another LAMP method to discriminate carbapenemase genotypes of blaGES. We evaluated the two assays using clinical P. aeruginosa strains. Two primer sets targeting blaGES (GES-LAMP) and the point mutation (Carba-GES-LAMP) were designed and evaluated for specificity and sensitivity. The detection limit of the GES-LAMP method was assessed using purified DNA and DNA-spiked clinical samples (urine, sputum, and blood). To determine the clinical usefulness of the methods, we used different (genotypically and phenotypically) P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, collected from diverse geographical locations between 2003 and 2012. The novel LAMP assay targeting blaGES was highly specific. The detection limit was 10 DNA copies per reaction; the assay was 10-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR. The LAMP assay detected blaGES with high sensitivity in all DNA-spiked samples; PCR did not detect blaGES in blood samples. The GES-LAMP method correctly detected the 5 isolates containing blaGES among the 14 isolates tested. Using these isolates, we confirmed that our Carba-GES-LAMP method of detecting point mutations correctly identified the two blaGES positive organisms with carbapenemase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the GES β-lactamase gene detection assay using the LAMP method. Our new assays effectively detect blaGES and critical unique mutations

    Opioid growth factor modulates angiogenesis

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    AbstractObjective: Induced angiogenesis has recently been attempted as a therapeutic modality in patients with occlusive arterial atherosclerotic disease. We investigated the possible role of endogenous opioids in the modulation of angiogenesis. Methods: Chick chorioallantoic membrane was used as an in vivo model to study angiogenesis. Fertilized chick eggs were incubated for 3 days, explanted, and incubated for an additional 2 days. Three-millimeter methylcellulose disks were placed on the surface of the chorioallantoic membrane; each disk contained opioid growth factor ([Met5]-enkephalin; 5 μg), the short-acting opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (5 μg), opioid growth factor and naloxone together (5 μg of each), the long-acting opioid antagonist naltrexone (5 μg), or distilled water (control). A second series of experiments was performed with distilled water, the angiogenic inhibitor retinoic acid (1 μg), and vascular endothelial growth factor (1 μg) to further evaluate our model. The developing vasculature was imaged 2 days later with a digital camera and exported to a computer for image analysis. Total number of blood vessels, total vessel length, and mean vessel length were measured within a 100-mm2 region surrounding each applied disk. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed with antibodies directed against opioid growth factor and its receptor (OGFr). Results: Opioid growth factor had a significant inhibitory effect on angiogenesis, both the number of blood vessels and the total vessel length being decreased (by 35% and 20%, respectively) in comparison with control levels (P <.005). The simultaneous addition of naloxone and opioid growth factor had no effect on blood vessel growth, nor did naloxone alone. Chorioallantoic membranes exposed to naltrexone displayed increases of 51% and 24% in blood vessel number and length, respectively, in comparison with control specimens (P <.005). These results indicate that the opioid growth factor effects are receptor mediated and tonically active. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of both opioid growth factor and OGFr within the endothelial cells and mesenchymal cells of the developing chorioallantoic membrane vessel wall. Retinoic acid significantly reduced the number and the total length of blood vessels, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor increased both the number and the length of blood vessels in comparison with the controls (P <.0001). The magnitude of opioid growth factor's effects were comparable to those seen with retinoic acid, whereas inhibition of opioid growth factor with naltrexone induced an increase in total vessel length comparable to that for vascular endothelial growth factor. Conclusions: These results demonstrate for the first time that endogenous opioids modulate in vivo angiogenesis. Opioid growth factor is a tonically active peptide that has a receptor-mediated action in regulating angiogenesis in developing endothelial and mesenchymal vascular cells. (J Vasc Surg 2000;32:364-73.
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