1,700 research outputs found

    A large dynamic range radiation-tolerant analog memory in a quarter- micron CMOS technology

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    An analog memory prototype containing 8*128 cells has been designed in a commercial quarter-micron CMOS process. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of designing large dynamic range mixed-mode switched capacitor circuits for high-energy physics (HEP) applications in deep submicron CMOS technologies. Special layout techniques have been used to make the circuit radiation tolerant. The memory cells employ gate-oxide capacitors for storage, permitting a very high density. A voltage write-voltage read architecture has been chosen to minimize the sensitivity to absolute capacitor values. The measured input voltage range is 2.3 V (the power supply voltage V/sub DD/ is equal to 2.5 V), with a linearity of almost 8 bits over 2 V. The dynamic range is more than 11 bits. The pedestal variation is +or-0.5 mV peak-to-peak. The noise measured, which is dominated by the noise of the measurement setup, is around 0.8 mV rms. The characteristics of the memory have been measured before irradiation and after 100 kGy (SiO/sub 2/), and they do not degrade after irradiation. (15 refs)

    Recent Developments and Qualification of Cryogenic Helium Flow Meters

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    Flow measurement of cryogenic fluids is a useful diagnostic tool not only to assess thermal performance of superconducting devices and related components but also for early diagnosis of faulty components/systems and to assure the correct sharing of cryogenic power. It is mainly performed on the recovery at room temperature of vapor from liquid boil-off due to lack of commercially available robust and precise cryogenic mass flow meters. When high-accuracy or fast-time response is needed, or individual gas recovery at room temperature is not available, it is necessary to measure directly the fluid feed at cryogenic temperature. The results of extensive testing of industrially available and in-house developed flowmeters outlining characteristics and advantages of each measuring method are presented

    Design considerations for a new generation of SiPMs with unprecedented timing resolution

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    The potential of photon detectors to achieve precise timing information is of increasing importance in many domains, PET and CT scanners in medical imaging and particle physics detectors, amongst others. The goal to increase by an order of magnitude the sensitivity of PET scanners and to deliver, via time-of-flight (TOF), true space points for each event, as well as the constraints set by future particle accelerators require a further leap in time resolution of scintillator-based ionizing radiation detectors, reaching eventually a few picoseconds resolution for sub MeV energy deposits. In spite of the impressive progress made in the last decade by several manufacturers, the Single Photon Time Resolution (SPTR) of SiPMs is still in the range of 70-120ps FWHM, whereas a value of 10ps or even less would be desirable. Such a step requires a break with traditional methods and the development of novel technologies. The possibility of combining the extraordinary potential of nanophotonics with new approaches offered by modern microelectronics and 3D electronic integration opens novel perspectives for the development of a new generation of metamaterial-based SiPMs with unprecedented photodetection efficiency and timing resolution.Comment: 16 pages, 6 figures, submitted to JINS

    Development of a Mass Flowmeter based on the Coriolis Acceleration for Liquid, Supercritical and Superfluid Helium

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    Beginning in the 1980's, Coriolis meters have gained generalised acceptance in liquid applications with a worldwide installed base of over 300,000 units. To meet the demands of cryogenic applications below 20 K, off-the-shelf Coriolis meters have been used, with minor design modifications and operational changes. The meters were originally calibrated on water and tested on liquid helium at 4.5 K, supercritical helium around 5 K and superfluid helium below 2 K. The meters maintain their intrinsic robustness and accuracy of better than 1% of measured value; accuracy is independent of density and temperature

    "CMAD", a Full Custom ASIC, for the Upgrade of COMPASS RICH-1

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    An 8 channel, full-custom ASIC prototype, named ”CMAD”, designed for the readout of the RICH-I detector system of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is presented. The task of the chip is amplifying the signals coming from fast multi-anode photomultipliers and comparing them against a threshold adjustable on-chip on a channel by channel basis. CMAD, developed using a 350nm commercial CMOS technology, occupies an area of 4.7x3.2mm2 and consumes 26mW/Ch power from a 3.3 V single source

    Strategies to investigate membrane damage, nucleoid condensation, and rnase activity of bacterial toxin–antitoxin systems

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    A large number of bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems have been identified so far and different experimental approaches have been explored to investigate their activity and regulation both in vivo and in vitro. Nonetheless, a common feature of these methods is represented by the difficulty in cell transformation, culturing, and stability of the transformants, due to the expression of highly toxic proteins. Recently, in dealing with the type I Lpt/RNAII and the type II YafQ/DinJ TA systems, we encountered several of these problems that urged us to optimize methodological strategies to study the phenotype of recombinant Escherichia coli host cells. In particular, we have found conditions to tightly repress toxin expression by combining the pET expression system with the E. coli C41(DE3) pLysS strain. To monitor the RNase activity of the YafQ toxin, we developed a fluorescence approach based on Thioflavin-T which fluoresces brightly when complexed with bacterial RNA. Fluorescence microscopy was also applied to reveal loss of membrane integrity associated with the activity of the type I toxin Lpt, by using DAPI and ethidium bromide to selectively stain cells with impaired membrane permeability. We further found that atomic force microscopy can readily be employed to characterize toxin-induced membrane damages

    Collision events between RNA polymerases in convergent transcription studied by atomic force microscopy

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    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to image, at single molecule resolution, transcription events by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) on a linear DNA template with two convergently aligned λ(pr) promoters. For the first time experimentally, the outcome of collision events during convergent transcription by two identical RNAP has been studied. Measurement of the positions of the RNAP on the DNA, allows distinction of open promoter complexes (OPCs) and elongating complexes (EC) and collided complexes (CC). This discontinuous time-course enables subsequent analysis of collision events where both RNAP remain bound on the DNA. After collision, the elongating RNAP has caused the other (usually stalled) RNAP to back-track along the template. The final positions of the two RNAP indicate that these are collisions between an EC and a stalled EC (SEC) or OPC (previously referred to as sitting-ducks). Interestingly, the distances between the two RNAP show that they are not always at closest approach after ‘collision’ has caused their arrest

    Beam test results of the irradiated Silicon Drift Detector for ALICE

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    The Silicon Drift Detectors will equip two of the six cylindrical layers of high precision position sensitive detectors in the ITS of the ALICE experiment at LHC. In this paper we report the beam test results of a SDD irradiated with 1 GeV electrons. The aim of this test was to verify the radiation tolerance of the device under an electron fluence equivalent to twice particle fluence expected during 10 years of ALICE operation.Comment: 6 pages,6 figures, to appear in the proceedings of International Workshop In high Multiplicity Environments (TIME'05), 3-7 October 2005, Zurich,Switzerlan