112 research outputs found

    Dise√Īo organizacional de una dependencia p√ļblica

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    The public administration in Mexico is constantly changing and competitive, so it seeks to establish goals that can be immediately visible externally by citizens, such as improvements in road infrastructure, street lighting and the creation of public spaces. Given this, the internal organizational problems that exist are left aside, which makes these problems persist from one administration after another; An example of this is in organizational design. This study seeks to find out if there is a relationship between the design and the organizational effectiveness of a public agency through a diagnostic study evaluated from the perspective of the workers.La administraci√≥n p√ļblica en M√©xico es cambiante y competitiva, de modo que busca establecer metas que logren ser visibles de manera externa por los ciudadanos de manera inmediata, como las mejoras de la infraestructura vial, alumbramiento y la creaci√≥n de espacios p√ļblicos. Ante esto, se dejan de lado los problemas organizacionales internos que existen, lo cual, hace que persistan estos problemas de una administraci√≥n tras otra; un ejemplo de esto es en el dise√Īo organizacional. Este estudio busca encontrar si existe relaci√≥n entre el dise√Īo y la efectividad organizacional de una dependencia p√ļblica a trav√©s de un estudio diagn√≥stico evaluado desde la perspectiva de los trabajadores

    Usefulness of Serial Multiorgan Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Acute Heart Failure: Results from a Prospective Observational Cohort.

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    Background and Objectives: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a common disease and a cause of high morbidity and mortality, constituting a major health problem. The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of multiorgan ultrasound in identifying pulmonary hypertension (PH), a major prognostic factor in patients admitted due to AHF, and assess whether there are significant changes in the venous excess ultrasonography (VE US) score or femoral vein Doppler at discharge. Materials and Methods: Patients were evaluated with a standard protocol of lung ultrasound, echocardiography, inferior vena cava (IVC) and hepatic, portal, intra-renal and femoral vein Doppler flow patterns at admission and on the day of discharge. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled during November 2021. The mean age was seventy-nine years (Standard Deviation‚ÄďSD 13.4). Seven patients (23.3%) had a worsening renal function during hospitalization. Regarding ultrasound findings, VE US score was calculated at admission and at discharge, unexpectedly remaining unchanged or even worsened (21 patients, 70.0%). The area under the curve for the lung score was 83.9% (p = 0.008), obtaining a cutoff value of 10 that showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 71.4% in the identification of intermediate and high PH. It was possible to monitor significant changes between both exams on the lung score (16.5 vs. 9.3; p < 0.001), improvement in the hepatic vein Doppler pattern (2.4 vs. 2.1; p = 0.002), improvement in portal vein Doppler pattern (1.7 vs. 1.4; p = 0.023), without significant changes in the intra-renal vein Doppler pattern (1.70 vs. 1.57; p = 0.293), VE US score (1.3 vs. 1.1; p = 0.501), femoral vein Doppler pattern (2.4 vs. 2.1; p = 0.161) and IVC collapsibility (2.0 vs. 2.1; p = 0.420). Conclusions: Our study results suggest that performing serial multiorgan Point-of-Care ultrasound can help us to better identify high and intermediate probability of PH patients with AHF. Currently proposed multi-organ, venous Doppler scanning protocols, such as the VE US score, should be further studied before expanding its use in AHF patients.post-print2977 K

    Spread of a SARS-CoV-2 variant through Europe in the summer of 2020.

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    Following its emergence in late 2019, the spread of SARS-CoV-21,2 has been tracked by phylogenetic analysis of viral genome sequences in unprecedented detail3‚Äď5. Although the virus spread globally in early 2020 before borders closed, intercontinental travel has since been greatly reduced. However, travel within Europe resumed in the summer of 2020. Here we report on a SARS-CoV-2 variant, 20E (EU1), that was identified in Spain in early summer 2020 and subsequently spread across Europe. We find no evidence that this variant has increased transmissibility, but instead demonstrate how rising incidence in Spain, resumption of travel, and lack of effective screening and containment may explain the variant‚Äôs success. Despite travel restrictions, we estimate that 20E (EU1) was introduced hundreds of times to European countries by summertime travellers, which is likely to have undermined local efforts to minimize infection with SARS-CoV-2. Our results illustrate how a variant can rapidly become dominant even in the absence of a substantial transmission advantage in favourable epidemiological settings. Genomic surveillance is critical for understanding how travel can affect transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and thus for informing future containment strategies as travel resumes. ¬© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited

    Normothermic regional perfusion vs. super-rapid recovery in controlled donation after circulatory death liver transplantation

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    [Background & Aims] Although there is increasing interest in its use, definitive evidence demonstrating a benefit for postmortem normothermic regional perfusion (NRP) in controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) liver transplantation is lacking. The aim of this study was to compare results of cDCD liver transplants performed with postmortem NRP vs. super-rapid recovery (SRR), the current standard for cDCD.[Methods] This was an observational cohort study including all cDCD liver transplants performed in Spain between June 2012 and December 2016, with follow-up ending in December 2017. Each donor hospital determined whether organ recovery was performed using NRP or SRR. The propensity scores technique based on the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance covariates across study groups; logistic and Cox regression models were used for binary and time-to-event outcomes.[Results] During the study period, there were 95 cDCD liver transplants performed with postmortem NRP and 117 with SRR. The median donor age was 56‚ÄĮyears (interquartile range 45‚Äď65 years). After IPTW analysis, baseline covariates were balanced, with all absolute standardised differences <0.15. IPTW-adjusted risks were significantly improved among NRP livers for overall biliary complications (odds ratio 0.14; 95% CI 0.06‚Äď0.35, p‚ÄĮ<0.001), ischaemic type biliary lesions (odds ratio 0.11; 95% CI 0.02‚Äď0.57; p‚ÄĮ=‚ÄĮ0.008), and graft loss (hazard ratio 0.39; 95% CI 0.20‚Äď0.78; p‚ÄĮ=‚ÄĮ0.008).[Conclusions] The use of postmortem NRP in cDCD liver transplantation appears to reduce postoperative biliary complications, ischaemic type biliary lesions and graft loss, and allows for the transplantation of livers even from cDCD donors of advanced age.[Lay summary] This is a propensity-matched nationwide observational cohort study performed using livers recovered from donors undergoing cardiac arrest provoked by the intentional withdrawal of life support (controlled donation after circulatory death, cDCD). Approximately half of the livers were recovered after a period of postmortem in situ normothermic regional perfusion, which restored warm oxygenated blood to the abdominal organs, whereas the remainder were recovered after rapid preservation with a cold solution. The study results suggest that the use of postmortem normothermic regional perfusion helps reduce rates of post-transplant biliary complications and graft loss and allows for the successful transplantation of livers from older cDCD donors.Peer reviewe

    Global patterns of vascular plant alpha diversity

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    Global patterns of regional (gamma) plant diversity are relatively well known, but whether these patterns hold for local communities, and the dependence on spatial grain, remain controversial. Using data on 170,272 georeferenced local plant assemblages, we created global maps of alpha diversity (local species richness) for vascular plants at three different spatial grains, for forests and non-forests. We show that alpha diversity is consistently high across grains in some regions (for example, Andean-Amazonian foothills), but regional 'scaling anomalies' (deviations from the positive correlation) exist elsewhere, particularly in Eurasian temperate forests with disproportionally higher fine-grained richness and many African tropical forests with disproportionally higher coarse-grained richness. The influence of different climatic, topographic and biogeographical variables on alpha diversity also varies across grains. Our multi-grain maps return a nuanced understanding of vascular plant biodiversity patterns that complements classic maps of biodiversity hotspots and will improve predictions of global change effects on biodiversity

    Local hydrological conditions influence tree diversity and composition across the Amazon basin

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    Tree diversity and composition in Amazonia are known to be strongly determined by the water supplied by precipitation. Nevertheless, within the same climatic regime, water availability is modulated by local topography and soil characteristics (hereafter referred to as local hydrological conditions), varying from saturated and poorly drained to well-drained and potentially dry areas. While these conditions may be expected to influence species distribution, the impacts of local hydrological conditions on tree diversity and composition remain poorly understood at the whole Amazon basin scale. Using a dataset of 443 1-ha non-flooded forest plots distributed across the basin, we investigate how local hydrological conditions influence 1) tree alpha diversity, 2) the community-weighted wood density mean (CWM-wd) ‚Äď a proxy for hydraulic resistance and 3) tree species composition. We find that the effect of local hydrological conditions on tree diversity depends on climate, being more evident in wetter forests, where diversity increases towards locations with well-drained soils. CWM-wd increased towards better drained soils in Southern and Western Amazonia. Tree species composition changed along local soil hydrological gradients in Central-Eastern, Western and Southern Amazonia, and those changes were correlated with changes in the mean wood density of plots. Our results suggest that local hydrological gradients filter species, influencing the diversity and composition of Amazonian forests. Overall, this study shows that the effect of local hydrological conditions is pervasive, extending over wide Amazonian regions, and reinforces the importance of accounting for local topography and hydrology to better understand the likely response and resilience of forests to increased frequency of extreme climate events and rising temperatures

    Mapping density, diversity and species-richness of the Amazon tree flora

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    Using 2.046 botanically-inventoried tree plots across the largest tropical forest on Earth, we mapped tree species-diversity and tree species-richness at 0.1-degree resolution, and investigated drivers for diversity and richness. Using only location, stratified by forest type, as predictor, our spatial model, to the best of our knowledge, provides the most accurate map of tree diversity in Amazonia to date, explaining approximately 70% of the tree diversity and species-richness. Large soil-forest combinations determine a significant percentage of the variation in tree species-richness and tree alpha-diversity in Amazonian forest-plots. We suggest that the size and fragmentation of these systems drive their large-scale diversity patterns and hence local diversity. A model not using location but cumulative water deficit, tree density, and temperature seasonality explains 47% of the tree species-richness in the terra-firme forest in Amazonia. Over large areas across Amazonia, residuals of this relationship are small and poorly spatially structured, suggesting that much of the residual variation may be local. The Guyana Shield area has consistently negative residuals, showing that this area has lower tree species-richness than expected by our models. We provide extensive plot meta-data, including tree density, tree alpha-diversity and tree species-richness results and gridded maps at 0.1-degree resolution

    Geographic patterns of tree dispersal modes in Amazonia and their ecological correlates

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    Aim: To investigate the geographic patterns and ecological correlates in the geographic distribution of the most common tree dispersal modes in Amazonia (endozoochory, synzoochory, anemochory and hydrochory). We examined if the proportional abundance of these dispersal modes could be explained by the availability of dispersal agents (disperser-availability hypothesis) and/or the availability of resources for constructing zoochorous fruits (resource-availability hypothesis). Time period: Tree-inventory plots established between 1934 and 2019. Major taxa studied: Trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ‚Č•‚ÄČ9.55‚ÄČcm. Location: Amazonia, here defined as the lowland rain forests of the Amazon River basin and the Guiana Shield. Methods: We assigned dispersal modes to a total of 5433 species and morphospecies within 1877 tree-inventory plots across terra-firme, seasonally flooded, and permanently flooded forests. We investigated geographic patterns in the proportional abundance of dispersal modes. We performed an abundance-weighted mean pairwise distance (MPD) test and fit generalized linear models (GLMs) to explain the geographic distribution of dispersal modes. Results: Anemochory was significantly, positively associated with mean annual wind speed, and hydrochory was significantly higher in flooded forests. Dispersal modes did not consistently show significant associations with the availability of resources for constructing zoochorous fruits. A lower dissimilarity in dispersal modes, resulting from a higher dominance of endozoochory, occurred in terra-firme forests (excluding podzols) compared to flooded forests. Main conclusions: The disperser-availability hypothesis was well supported for abiotic dispersal modes (anemochory and hydrochory). The availability of resources for constructing zoochorous fruits seems an unlikely explanation for the distribution of dispersal modes in Amazonia. The association between frugivores and the proportional abundance of zoochory requires further research, as tree recruitment not only depends on dispersal vectors but also on conditions that favour or limit seedling recruitment across forest types

    The evolution of the ventilatory ratio is a prognostic factor in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 ARDS patients

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    Background: Mortality due to COVID-19 is high, especially in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The purpose of the study is to investigate associations between mortality and variables measured during the first three days of mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19 intubated at ICU admission. Methods: Multicenter, observational, cohort study includes consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 44 Spanish ICUs between February 25 and July 31, 2020, who required intubation at ICU admission and mechanical ventilation for more than three days. We collected demographic and clinical data prior to admission; information about clinical evolution at days 1 and 3 of mechanical ventilation; and outcomes. Results: Of the 2,095 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU, 1,118 (53.3%) were intubated at day 1 and remained under mechanical ventilation at day three. From days 1 to 3, PaO2/FiO2 increased from 115.6 [80.0-171.2] to 180.0 [135.4-227.9] mmHg and the ventilatory ratio from 1.73 [1.33-2.25] to 1.96 [1.61-2.40]. In-hospital mortality was 38.7%. A higher increase between ICU admission and day 3 in the ventilatory ratio (OR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.07], p = 0.030) and creatinine levels (OR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.09], p = 0.005) and a lower increase in platelet counts (OR 0.96 [CI 0.93-1.00], p = 0.037) were independently associated with a higher risk of death. No association between mortality and the PaO2/FiO2 variation was observed (OR 0.99 [CI 0.95 to 1.02], p = 0.47). Conclusions: Higher ventilatory ratio and its increase at day 3 is associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation at ICU admission. No association was found in the PaO2/FiO2 variation

    Treatment with tocilizumab or corticosteroids for COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammatory state: a multicentre cohort study (SAM-COVID-19)

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    Objectives: The objective of this study was to estimate the association between tocilizumab or corticosteroids and the risk of intubation or death in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) with a hyperinflammatory state according to clinical and laboratory parameters. Methods: A cohort study was performed in 60 Spanish hospitals including 778 patients with COVID-19 and clinical and laboratory data indicative of a hyperinflammatory state. Treatment was mainly with tocilizumab, an intermediate-high dose of corticosteroids (IHDC), a pulse dose of corticosteroids (PDC), combination therapy, or no treatment. Primary outcome was intubation or death; follow-up was 21 days. Propensity score-adjusted estimations using Cox regression (logistic regression if needed) were calculated. Propensity scores were used as confounders, matching variables and for the inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs). Results: In all, 88, 117, 78 and 151 patients treated with tocilizumab, IHDC, PDC, and combination therapy, respectively, were compared with 344 untreated patients. The primary endpoint occurred in 10 (11.4%), 27 (23.1%), 12 (15.4%), 40 (25.6%) and 69 (21.1%), respectively. The IPTW-based hazard ratios (odds ratio for combination therapy) for the primary endpoint were 0.32 (95%CI 0.22-0.47; p < 0.001) for tocilizumab, 0.82 (0.71-1.30; p 0.82) for IHDC, 0.61 (0.43-0.86; p 0.006) for PDC, and 1.17 (0.86-1.58; p 0.30) for combination therapy. Other applications of the propensity score provided similar results, but were not significant for PDC. Tocilizumab was also associated with lower hazard of death alone in IPTW analysis (0.07; 0.02-0.17; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Tocilizumab might be useful in COVID-19 patients with a hyperinflammatory state and should be prioritized for randomized trials in this situatio
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