3,127 research outputs found

    A Box Particle Filter for Stochastic and Set-theoretic Measurements with Association Uncertainty

    Get PDF
    This work develops a novel estimation approach for nonlinear dynamic stochastic systems by combining the sequential Monte Carlo method with interval analysis. Unlike the common pointwise measurements, the proposed solution is for problems with interval measurements with association uncertainty. The optimal theoretical solution can be formulated in the framework of random set theory as the Bernoulli filter for interval measurements. The straightforward particle filter implementation of the Bernoulli filter typically requires a huge number of particles since the posterior probability density function occupies a significant portion of the state space. In order to reduce the number of particles, without necessarily sacrificing estimation accuracy, the paper investigates an implementation based on box particles. A box particle occupies a small and controllable rectangular region of non-zero volume in the target state space. The numerical results demonstrate that the filter performs remarkably well: both target state and target presence are estimated reliably using a very small number of box particles

    Measurements on HV-CMOS Active Sensors After Irradiation to HL-LHC fluences

    Full text link
    During the long shutdown (LS) 3 beginning 2022 the LHC will be upgraded for higher luminosities pushing the limits especially for the inner tracking detectors of the LHC experiments. In order to cope with the increased particle rate and radiation levels the ATLAS Inner Detector will be completely replaced by a purely silicon based one. Novel sensors based on HV-CMOS processes prove to be good candidates in terms of spatial resolution and radiation hardness. In this paper measurements conducted on prototypes built in the AMS H18 HV-CMOS process and irradiated to fluences of up to 21016neqcm22\cdot10^{16}\,\text{n}_\text{eq}\text{cm}^{-2} are presented.Comment: 10 pages, 17 figures, proceedings contribution to the International Workshop on Semiconductor Pixel Detectors for Particles and Imaging (PIXEL2014), submitted to Jinst, revised version as requested by Jinst: added more information to testbeam chapter, replaced hole density by electric field distribution plots, corrected typos and plot label

    On Infinite Quon Statistics and "Ambiguous" Statistics

    Get PDF
    We critically examine a recent suggestion that "ambiguous" statistics is equivalent to infinite quon statistics and that it describes a dilute, nonrelativistics ideal gas of extremal black holes. We show that these two types of statistics are different and that the description of extremal black holes in terms of "ambiguous" statistics cannot be applied.Comment: Latex, 9 pages, no figures, to appear in Mod.Phys.Lett.

    Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage

    Get PDF
    The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On the nozzle passage endwall surfaces the presence of strong pressure gradients and secondary flow limit the validity of the boundary layer code

    The Water Footprint of Data Centers

    Get PDF
    The internet and associated Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) are diffusing at an astounding pace. As data centers (DCs) proliferate to accommodate this rising demand, their environmental impacts grow too. While the energy efficiency of DCs has been researched extensively, their water footprint (WF) has so far received little to no attention. This article conducts a preliminary WF accounting for cooling and energy consumption in DCs. The WF of DCs is estimated to be between 1047 and 151,061 m3/TJ. Outbound DC data traffic generates a WF of 1–205 liters per gigabyte (roughly equal to the WF of 1 kg of tomatos at the higher end). It is found that, typically, energy consumption constitues by far the greatest share of DC WF, but the level of uncertainty associated with the WF of different energy sources used by DCs makes a comprehensive assessment of DCs’ water use efficiency very challenging. Much better understanding of DC WF is urgently needed if a meaningful evaluation of this rapidly spreading service technology is to be gleaned and response measures are to be put into effect

    The Three Dimensional Flow Field at the Exit of an Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor

    Get PDF
    A systematic and comprehensive investigation was performed to provide detailed data on the three dimensional viscous flow phenomena downstream of a modem turbine rotor and to understand the flow physics such as origin, nature, development of wakes, secondary flow, and leakage flow. The experiment was carried out in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) at Penn State, with velocity measurements taken with a 3-D LDV System. Two radial traverses at 1% and 10% of chord downstream of the rotor have been performed to identify the three-dimensional flow features at the exit of the rotor blade row. Sufficient spatial resolution was maintained to resolve blade wake, secondary flow, and tip leakage flow. The wake deficit is found to be substantial, especially at 1% of chord downstream of the rotor. At this location, negative axial velocity occurs near the tip, suggesting flow separation in the tip clearance region. Turbulence intensities peak in the wake region, and cross- correlations are mainly associated with the velocity gradient of the wake deficit. The radial velocities, both in the wake and in the endwall region, are found to be substantial. Two counter-rotating secondary flows are identified in the blade passage, with one occupying the half span close to the casino and the other occupying the half span close to the hub. The tip leakage flow is well restricted to 10% immersion from the blade tip. There are strong vorticity distributions associated with these secondary flows and tip leakage flow. The passage averaged data are in good agreement with design values

    Properties of latent interface-trap buildup in irradiated metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors determined by switched bias isothermal annealing experiments

    Get PDF
    Isothermal annealing experiments with switched gate bias have been performed to determine the properties of the latent interface-trap buildup during postirradiation annealing of metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. It has been found that a bias-independent process occurs until the start of the latent interface-trap buildup. During the buildup itself, oxide-trap charge is not permanently neutralized, but is temporarily compensated. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. (DOI: 10.1063/1.1336159

    What we observe is biased by what other people tell us: beliefs about the reliability of gaze behavior modulate attentional orienting to gaze cues

    Get PDF
    For effective social interactions with other people, information about the physical environment must be integrated with information about the interaction partner. In order to achieve this, processing of social information is guided by two components: a bottom-up mechanism reflexively triggered by stimulus-related information in the social scene and a top-down mechanism activated by task-related context information. In the present study, we investigated whether these components interact during attentional orienting to gaze direction. In particular, we examined whether the spatial specificity of gaze cueing is modulated by expectations about the reliability of gaze behavior. Expectations were either induced by instruction or could be derived from experience with displayed gaze behavior. Spatially specific cueing effects were observed with highly predictive gaze cues, but also when participants merely believed that actually non-predictive cues were highly predictive. Conversely, cueing effects for the whole gazed-at hemifield were observed with non-predictive gaze cues, and spatially specific cueing effects were attenuated when actually predictive gaze cues were believed to be non-predictive. This pattern indicates that (i) information about cue predictivity gained from sampling gaze behavior across social episodes can be incorporated in the attentional orienting to social cues, and that (ii) beliefs about gaze behavior modulate attentional orienting to gaze direction even when they contradict information available from social episodes