3,846 research outputs found

    Testing Gravity Against Early Time Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

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    A generic prediction of general relativity is that the cosmological linear density growth factor DD is scale independent. But in general, modified gravities do not preserve this signature. A scale dependent DD can cause time variation in gravitational potential at high redshifts and provides a new cosmological test of gravity, through early time integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect-large scale structure (LSS) cross correlation. We demonstrate the power of this test for a class of f(R)f(R) gravity, with the form f(R)=λ1H02exp(R/λ2H02)f(R)=-\lambda_1 H_0^2\exp(-R/\lambda_2H_0^2). Such f(R)f(R) gravity, even with degenerate expansion history to Λ\LambdaCDM, can produce detectable ISW effect at z\ga 3 and l\ga 20. Null-detection of such effect would constrain λ2\lambda_2 to be λ2>1000\lambda_2>1000 at >95>95% confidence level. On the other hand, robust detection of ISW-LSS cross correlation at high zz will severely challenge general relativity.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures. Accepted to PRD. v2: Revised to address to more general audience. v3: added discussion

    Dark Energy Accretion onto a Black Hole in an Expanding Universe

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    By using the solution describing a black hole embedded in the FLRW universe, we obtain the evolving equation of the black hole mass expressed in terms of the cosmological parameters. The evolving equation indicates that in the phantom dark energy universe the black hole mass becomes zero before the Big Rip is reached.Comment: 7 pages, no figures, errors is correcte

    Accelerated expansion in modified gravity with a Yukawa-like term

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    We discuss the Palatini formulation of modified gravity including a Yukawa-like term. It is shown that in this formulation, the Yukawa term offers an explanation for the current exponential accelerated expansion of the universe and reduces to the standard Friedmann cosmology in the appropriate limit. We then discuss the scalar-tensor formulation of the model as a metric theory and show that the Yukawa term predicts a power-law acceleration at late-times. The Newtonian limit of the theory is also discussed in context of the Palatini formalism.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures, to appear in IJMP

    Eternally inflating cosmologies from intersecting spacelike branes

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    Intersecting spacelike braneworld cosmologies are investigated. The time axis is set on the scale parameter of extra space, which may include more than one timelike metric. Obtained are eternally inflating (i.e. undergoing late-time inflation) Robertson-Walker spacetime and extra space with a constant scale factor. In the case of multibrane solutions, some dimensions are static or shrink. The fact that the largest supersymmetry algebra contains 32 supercharges in 4 dimensions imposes a restriction on the geometry of extra space.Comment: 19 page

    Model-Independent Distance Measurements from Gamma-Ray Bursts and Constraints on Dark Energy

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    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) are the most energetic events in the Universe, and provide a complementary probe of dark energy by allowing the measurement of cosmic expansion history that extends to redshifts greater than 6. Unlike Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), GRBs must be calibrated for each cosmological model considered, because of the lack of a nearby sample of GRBs for model-independent calibration. For a flat Universe with a cosmological constant, we find Omega_m=0.25^{+0.12}_{-0.11} from 69 GRBs alone. We show that the current GRB data can be summarized by a set of model-independent distance measurements, with negligible loss of information. We constrain a dark energy equation of state linear in the cosmic scale factor using these distance measurements from GRBs, together with the "Union" compilation of SNe Ia, WMAP five year observations, and the SDSS baryon acoustic oscillation scale measurement. We find that a cosmological constant is consistent with current data at 68% confidence level for a flat Universe. Our results provide a simple and robust method to incorporate GRB data in a joint analysis of cosmological data to constrain dark energy.Comment: 8 pages, 5 color figures. Version expanded and revised for clarification, and typo in Eqs.(3)(4)(12) corrected. PRD, in pres

    Constraining Dark Energy and Cosmological Transition Redshift with Type Ia Supernovae

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    The property of dark energy and the physical reason for acceleration of the present universe are two of the most difficult problems in modern cosmology. The dark energy contributes about two-thirds of the critical density of the present universe from the observations of type-Ia supernova (SNe Ia) and anisotropy of cosmic microwave background (CMB).The SN Ia observations also suggest that the universe expanded from a deceleration to an acceleration phase at some redshift, implying the existence of a nearly uniform component of dark energy with negative pressure. We use the ``gold'' sample containing 157 SNe Ia and two recent well-measured additions, SNe Ia 1994ae and 1998aq to explore the properties of dark energy and the transition redshift. For a flat universe with the cosmological constant, we measure ΩM=0.280.05+0.04\Omega_{M}=0.28_{-0.05}^{+0.04}, which is consistent with Riess et al. The transition redshift is zT=0.600.08+0.06z_{T}=0.60_{-0.08}^{+0.06}. We also discuss several dark energy models that define the w(z)w(z) of the parameterized equation of state of dark energy including one parameter and two parameters (w(z)w(z) being the ratio of the pressure to energy density). Our calculations show that the accurately calculated transition redshift varies from zT=0.290.06+0.07z_{T}=0.29_{-0.06}^{+0.07} to zT=0.600.08+0.06z_{T}=0.60_{-0.08}^{+0.06} across these models. We also calculate the minimum redshift zcz_{c} at which the current observations need the universe to accelerate.Comment: 16 pages, 5 figures, 1 tabl

    Vacuum energy and Universe in special relativity

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    The problem of cosmological constant and vacuum energy is usually thought of as the subject of general relativity. However, the vacuum energy is important for the Universe even in the absence of gravity, i.e. in the case when the Newton constant G is exactly zero, G=0. We discuss the response of the vacuum energy to the perturbations of the quantum vacuum in special relativity, and find that as in general relativity the vacuum energy density is on the order of the energy density of matter. In general relativity, the dependence of the vacuum energy on the equation of state of matter does not contain G, and thus is valid in the limit when G tends to zero. However, the result obtained for the vacuum energy in the world without gravity, i.e. when G=0 exactly, is different.Comment: LaTeX file, 7 pages, no figures, to appear in JETP Letters, reference is adde

    Is there Evidence for a Hubble bubble? The Nature of Type Ia Supernova Colors and Dust in External Galaxies

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    We examine recent evidence from the luminosity-redshift relation of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) for the 3σ\sim 3 \sigma detection of a ``Hubble bubble'' -- a departure of the local value of the Hubble constant from its globally averaged value \citep{Jha:07}. By comparing the MLCS2k2 fits used in that study to the results from other light-curve fitters applied to the same data, we demonstrate that this is related to the interpretation of SN color excesses (after correction for a light-curve shape-color relation) and the presence of a color gradient across the local sample. If the slope of the linear relation (β\beta) between SN color excess and luminosity is fit empirically, then the bubble disappears. If, on the other hand, the color excess arises purely from Milky Way-like dust, then SN data clearly favors a Hubble bubble. We demonstrate that SN data give β2\beta \simeq 2, instead of the β4\beta \simeq 4 one would expect from purely Milky-Way-like dust. This suggests that either SN intrinsic colors are more complicated than can be described with a single light-curve shape parameter, or that dust around SN is unusual. Disentangling these possibilities is both a challenge and an opportunity for large-survey SN Ia cosmology.Comment: Further information and data at http://qold.astro.utoronto.ca/conley/bubble/ Accepted for publication in ApJ

    Naked Singularity in a Modified Gravity Theory

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    The cosmological constant induced by quantum fluctuation of the graviton on a given background is considered as a tool for building a spectrum of different geometries. In particular, we apply the method to the Schwarzschild background with positive and negative mass parameter. In this way, we put on the same level of comparison the related naked singularity (-M) and the positive mass wormhole. We discuss how to extract information in the context of a f(R) theory. We use the Wheeler-De Witt equation as a basic equation to perform such an analysis regarded as a Sturm-Liouville problem . The application of the same procedure used for the ordinary theory, namely f(R)=R, reveals that to this approximation level, it is not possible to classify the Schwarzschild and its naked partner into a geometry spectrum.Comment: 8 Pages. Contribution given to DICE 2008. To appear in the proceeding
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