325 research outputs found

    Framework of fully integrated hybrid systems

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    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00521-011-0672-9A framework of fully integrated hybrid systems (HSs) is proposed for the development and management of HS which involve databases, advanced user interfaces, symbolic systems, and artificial neural networks. This framework provides a common input–output interface among those HS modules developed on the framework, with a completely two-directional flow control and a highly parallel processing. This integration framework facilitates the incorporation of heterogeneous modules, together with their subsequent management and updating

    Study of classical conditioning in Aplysia through the implementation of computational models of its learning circuit

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    “This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence on 04 Jul 2007, available online: http://wwww.tandfonline.com/DOI:10.1080/09528130601052177.”The learning phenomenon can be analysed at various levels, but in this paper we treat a specific paradigm of artificial intelligence, i.e. artificial neural networks (ANNs), whose main virtue is their capacity to seek unified and mutually satisfactory solutions which are relevant to biological and psychological models. Many of the procedures and methods proposed previously have used biological and/or psychological principles, models, and data; here, we focus on models which look for a greater degree of coherence. Therefore we analyse and compare all aspects of the Gluck–Thompson and Hawkins ANN models. A multithread computer model is developed for analysis of these models in order to study simple learning phenomena in a marine invertebrate (Aplysia californica) and to check their applicability to research in psychology and neurobiology. The predictive capacities of the models differs significantly: the Hawkins model provides a better analysis of the behavioural repertory of Aplysia on both the associative and the non-associative learning level. The scope of the ANN modelling technique is broadened by integration with neurobiological and behavioural models of associative learning, allowing enhancement of some architectures and procedures that are currently being used

    Human papillomavirus type 16 variants in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma in San Luis PotosĂ­ City, Mexico

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    "Background In San Luis PotosĂ­ City cervical infection by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) associated to dysplastic lesions is more prevalent in younger women. In this work HPV16 subtypes and variants associated to low-grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) of 38 women residing in San Luis PotosĂ­ City were identified by comparing their E6 open reading frame sequences. Results Three European (E) variants (E-P, n = 27; E-T350G, n = 7; E-C188G, n = 2) and one AA-a variant (n = 2) were identified among the 38 HPV16 sequences analyzed. E-P variant sequences contained 23 single nucleotide changes, two of which (A334G, A404T) had not been described before and allowed the phylogenetic separation from the other variants. E-P A334G sequences were the most prevalent (22 cases, 57.9%), followed by the E-P Ref prototype (8 cases, 21.1%) and E-P A404T (1 case, 2.6%) sequences. The HSIL + ICC fraction was 0.21 for the E-P A334G variants and 0.00 for the E-P Ref variants. Conclusion We conclude that in the women included in this study the HPV16 E subtype is 19 times more frequent than the AA subtype; that the circulating E variants are E-P (71.1%) > E-T350G (18.4%) > E-C188G (5.3%); that 71.0% of the E-P sequences carry the A334G single nucleotide change and appear to correspond to a HPV16 variant characteristic of San Luis Potosi City more oncogenic than the E-P Ref prototype.

    Ultrashort pulsed laser conditioning of human enamel: in vitro study of the influence of geometrical processing parameters on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

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    [Abstract] The surfaces of 63 extracted premolar teeth were processed with intense ultrashort laser pulses (λ = 795 nm; pulse duration, 120 fs; repetition rate, 1 kHz) to produce cross patterns with different pitches (s) in the micrometer range in order to evaluate the influence of such microstructures on the shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets to enamel. The samples were classified in nine groups corresponding to the control group (raw samples) and eight different laser-processed groups (cross patterns with s increasing from 15 to 180 μm). Brackets were luted with TransbondTM XT adhesive resin to all the samples; after 72 h, they all were submitted to strength test in a universal testing machine. Additionally, a third of the samples underwent morphological analysis of the debonded surface by means of scanning electron microscope microscopy and an analysis of the failure mode based on the adhesive remnant index. The results showed that enamel microstructuring with ultrashort laser pulses remarkably increase the bond strength of brackets. Dense cross patterns (s  90 μm) give rise to smaller improvements of the bond strength. A strong correlation of this behavior with the predominant failure mode in both scenarios was found. So far, the best compromise between suitable adhesive efficiency, processing time minimization, and enamel surface preservation suggests the performance of cross patterns with pitches in the order of 90 μm.Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad; CSD2007-00013Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad; FIS2009-0952Castilla y León. Junta; SA086A12-

    Artificial Neural Networks Manipulation Server: Research on the Integration of Databases and Artificial Neural Networks

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    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s005210200011This paper proposes a new whole and distributed integration approach between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Databases (DBs) taking into account the different stages of the former’s lifecycle (training, test and running). The integration architecture which has been developed consists of an ANN Manipulation Server (AMS) based on a client-server approach, which improves the ANNs’ manipulation and experimentation capabilities considerably, and also those of their training and test sets, together with their modular reuse among possibly remote applications. Moreover, the chances of integrating ANNs and DBs are analysed, proposing a new level of integration which improves the integration features considerably. This level has not been contemplated yet at full reach in any of the commercial or experimental tools analysed up to the present date. Finally, the application of the integration architecture which has been developed to the specific domain of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) is studied. Thus, the versatility and efficacy of that architecture for developing ANNs is tested. The enormous complexity of the functioning of the patterns which rule the environment’s behaviour, and the great number of variables involved, make it the ideal domain for experimenting on the application of ANNs together with DBs

    Influence of Ideational Praxis on the Development of Play and Adaptive Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparative Analysis

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    [Abstract] Background: Traditionally, assessment of praxis skills in children with ASD has focused on the evaluation of aspects related to the planning and execution of actions. This study aimed to evaluate the ideational abilities of children with ASD and analyze possible relationships with the development of play and adaptive behaviors. Methods: 40 children between 4 to 6 years (TD = 20; ASD = 20) were evaluated with the Test of Ideational Praxis, the Revised Knox Preschool Play Scale, and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II. Results: Statistically significant relationships were obtained between ideational praxis and play skills development (r = 0.649; p = 0.01), adaptive leisure behavior (r = 0.338; p = 0.04) and social adaptive behavior (r = 0.319; p = 0.04). Results of multiple linear regression models found a linear relationship between ideational praxis and play development (p = 0.005) and adaptive leisure skills (p = 0.004), but not with social interaction skills (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Objective evaluation with a specific ideational praxis assessment facilitates understanding of the ideational abilities and widens understanding of praxis skills and their impact on play and adaptive behaviors in children with ASD
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