164 research outputs found

    Image-derived input functions from dynamic O-15-water PET scans using penalised reconstruction

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    BACKGROUND: Quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the brain typically require arterial blood sampling but this is complicated and logistically challenging. One solution to remove the need for arterial blood sampling is the use of image-derived input functions (IDIFs). Obtaining accurate IDIFs, however, has proved to be challenging, mainly due to the limited resolution of PET. Here, we employ penalised reconstruction alongside iterative thresholding methods and simple partial volume correction methods to produce IDIFs from a single PET scan, and subsequently, compare these to blood-sampled input curves (BSIFs) as ground truth. Retrospectively we used data from sixteen subjects with two dynamic 15O-labelled water PET scans and continuous arterial blood sampling: one baseline scan and another post-administration of acetazolamide. RESULTS: IDIFs and BSIFs agreed well in terms of the area under the curve of input curves when comparing peaks, tails and peak-to-tail ratios with R2 values of 0.95, 0.70 and 0.76, respectively. Grey matter cerebral blood flow (CBF) values showed good agreement with an average difference between the BSIF and IDIF CBF values of 2% ± and a coefficient of variation (CoV) of 7.3%. CONCLUSION: Our results show promising results that a robust IDIF can be produced for dynamic 15O–water PET scans using only the dynamic PET scan images with no need for a corresponding MRI or complex analytical techniques and thereby making routine clinical use of quantitative CBF measurements with 15O–water feasible

    Prevalence, 12-Month Prognosis, and Clinical Management Need of Depression in Coronary Heart Disease Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Background: Screening for depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. There is limited data on the actual depression management need in routine care. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence, treatment rates, prognosis, and management need of clinical and subclinical depression in CHD patients according to the American Heart Association recommendations and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline Depression in Adults with a Chronic Physical Health Problem. Methods: Patients were recruited at 2 German university clinics between 2012 and 2014. Depressive disorders were assessed according to the DSM-IV and depressive symptom severity at baseline and during follow-up was evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Depression management need was determined by the severity and longitudinal course of depression symptoms. Results: Of 1,024 patients (19% women), 12% had clinical depression (depressive disorder) and 45% had subclinical depression (PHQ-9 score >= 5) at baseline. Among those with clinical depression, 46% were in treatment at least once during 12 months; 26% were continuously in treatment during follow-up. Depressive disorder and depressive symptoms were significant risk factor-adjusted predictors of the 12-months mortality (adjusted HR = 3.19; 95% CI 1.32-7.69, and adjusted HR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.02-1.16, respectively). Depressive symptoms persisted in 85% of the clinically depressed and in 47% of the subclinically depressed patients. According to current recommendations, 29% of all CHD patients would require depression management within 1 year. Conclusions: There is a need for enhanced recognition, referral, and continuous and improved clinical management of depression in CHD patients

    Safety and efficacy of cladribine tablets in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Results from the randomized extension trial of the CLARITY study.

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    BACKGROUND: In the 2-year CLARITY study, cladribine tablets significantly improved clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes (vs placebo) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of cladribine treatment in a 2-year Extension study. METHODS: In this 2-year Extension study, placebo recipients from CLARITY received cladribine 3.5 mg/kg; cladribine recipients were re-randomized 2:1 to cladribine 3.5 mg/kg or placebo, with blind maintained. RESULTS: A total of 806 patients were assigned to treatment. Adverse event rates were generally similar between groups, but lymphopenia Grade ⩾ 3 rates were higher with cladribine than placebo (Grade 4 lymphopenia occurred infrequently). In patients receiving cladribine 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY and experiencing lymphopenia Grade ⩾ 3 in the Extension, >90% of those treated with cladribine 3.5 mg/kg and all treated with placebo in the Extension, recovered to Grade 0-1 by study end. Cladribine treatment in CLARITY produced efficacy improvements that were maintained in patients treated with placebo in the Extension; in patients treated with cladribine 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY, approximately 75% remained relapse-free when given placebo during the Extension. CONCLUSION: Cladribine tablets treatment for 2 years followed by 2 years' placebo treatment produced durable clinical benefits similar to 4 years of cladribine treatment with a low risk of severe lymphopenia or clinical worsening. No clinical improvement in efficacy was apparent following further treatment with cladribine tablets after the initial 2-year treatment period in this trial setting.This study was sponsored by EMD Serono, Inc., a business of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany (in the United States), and Merck Serono SA, Geneva, an affiliate of Merck KGaA Darmstadt, Germany (rest of the world)

    Evaluation of Soluble Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A as a Biomarker of Human Brain Endothelial Barrier Breakdown

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    Background: An inducible release of soluble junctional adhesion molecule-A (sJAM-A) under pro-inflammatory conditions was described in cultured non-CNS endothelial cells (EC) and increased sJAM-A serum levels were found to indicate inflammation in non-CNS vascular beds. Here we studied the regulation of JAM-A expression in cultured brain EC and evaluated sJAM-A as a serum biomarker of blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Methodology/Principal Findings: As previously reported in non-CNS EC types, pro-inflammatory stimulation of primary or immortalized (hCMEC/D3) human brain microvascular EC (HBMEC) induced a redistribution of cell-bound JAM-A on the cell surface away from tight junctions, along with a dissociation from the cytoskeleton. This was paralleled by reduced immunocytochemical staining of occludin and zonula occludens-1 as well as by increased paracellular permeability for dextran 3000. Both a self-developed ELISA test and Western blot analysis detected a constitutive sJAM-A release by HBMEC into culture supernatants, which importantly was unaffected by pro-inflammatory or hypoxia/reoxygenation challenge. Accordingly, serum levels of sJAM-A were unaltered in 14 patients with clinically active multiple sclerosis compared to 45 stable patients and remained unchanged in 13 patients with acute ischemic non-small vessel stroke over time. Conclusion: Soluble JAM-A was not suited as a biomarker of BBB breakdown in our hands. The unexpected non-inducibility of sJAM-A release at the human BBB might contribute to a particular resistance of brain EC to inflammatory stimuli, protecting the CNS compartment

    The Effect of Smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

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    Background. The live smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinations have been associated with better adult survival in both Guinea-Bissau and Denmark. In Guinea-Bissau, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 became an important cause of death after smallpox vaccination was phased out globally in 1980. We hypothesised that smallpox and BCG vaccinations were associated with a lower prevalence of HIV-1 infection, and we tested this hypothesis in both Guinea-Bissau and Denmark. Methods. We conducted 2 studies: (1) a cross-sectional study of HIV infection and vaccination scars in Guinea-Bissau including 1751 individuals and (2) a case-base study with a background population of 46 239 individuals in Denmark. In Guinea-Bissau, HIV-1 transmission was almost exclusively sexually transmitted. In Denmark, we excluded intravenous drug users. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and/or smallpox vaccination compared with neither of these vaccines was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for HIV-1 of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-1.07) in Guinea-Bissau and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.43-1.15) in Denmark. We combined the results from both settings in a meta-analysis (aOR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.96). Data from Guinea-Bissau indicated a stronger effect of multiple smallpox vaccination scars (aOR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10-0.75) as follows: women, aOR = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.05-0.64); men, aOR = 0.52 (95% CI, 0.12-2.33); sex-differential effect, P = .29. Conclusions. The studies from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark, 2 very different settings, both suggest that the BCG and smallpox vaccines could be associated with a decreased risk of sexually transmitted HIV-1. It might be informative to pursue this observation and explore possible protective mechanisms as part of the search for an HIV-1 vaccine