120 research outputs found

    Molecular Pathways Underlying Adaptive Repair of the Injured Kidney: Novel Donation After Cardiac Death and Acute Kidney Injury Platforms

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    International audienceObjective: To test the hypothesis that gene expression profiling in peripheral blood from patients who have undergone kidney transplantation (KT) will provide mechanistic insights regarding graft repair and regeneration.Background: Renal grafts obtained from living donors (LD) typically function immediately, whereas organs from donation after cardiac death (DCD) or acute kidney injury (AKI) donors may experience delayed function with eventual recovery. Thus, recipients of LD, DCD, and AKI kidneys were studied to provide a more complete understanding of the molecular basis for renal recovery.Methods: Peripheral blood was collected from LD and DCD/AKI recipients before transplant and throughout the first 30 days thereafter. Total RNA was isolated and assayed on whole genome microarrays.Results: Comparison of longitudinal gene expression between LD and AKI/DCD revealed 2 clusters, representing 141 differentially expressed transcripts. A subset of 11 transcripts was found to be differentially expressed in AKI/DCD versus LD. In all recipients, the most robust gene expression changes were observed in the first day after transplantation. After day 1, gene expression profiles differed depending upon the source of the graft. In patients receiving LD grafts, the expression of most genes did not remain markedly elevated beyond the first day post-KT. In the AKI/DCD groups, elevations in gene expression were maintained for at least 5 days post-KT. In all recipients, the pattern of coordinate gene overexpression subsided by 28 to 30 days.Conclusions: Gene expression in peripheral blood of AKI/DCD recipients offers a novel platform to understand the potential mechanisms and timing of kidney repair and regeneration after transplantation

    Abordagem por CompetĂȘncias no CurrĂ­culo Escolar em Cabo Verde: Desfazendo EquĂ­vocos para uma Mudança Significativa nas PolĂ­ticas e PrĂĄxis Educacionais

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    A abordagem curricular por competĂȘncias, enquanto fenĂłmeno recente no discurso educativo em Cabo Verde, corre o risco de nĂŁo passar de mero modismo, sem se traduzir numa inovação efectiva ao nĂ­vel das prĂĄxis educacionais, se nĂŁo for correctamente compreendida pelos diversos actores envolvidos na obra educativa e, em particular, nos processos de deliberação, gestĂŁo e realização dos currĂ­culos escolares. O presente artigo procura esclarecer alguns equĂ­vocos que em Cabo Verde, como em outras latitudes, acompanham a defesa da pedagogia por competĂȘncias. Assim, importa elucidar que a abordagem curricular por competĂȘncias vem aprofundar, entre outras, as abordagens por conteĂșdos e por objectivos e nĂŁo, pura e simplesmente, substituĂ­-las, por serem, alegadamente, tradicionais. Outrossim, no contexto da educação escolar, as competĂȘncias nĂŁo devem ser encaradas numa perspectiva redutora, focalizada na transferibilidade de conhecimentos para o mercado de trabalho, mas, fundamentalmente, no sentido da mobilização do conhecimento escolar para a resolução dos problemas nos diversos contextos ou situaçÔes da vida, que nĂŁo se esgota no mercado

    Human granzyme B regulatory B cells prevent effector CD4+CD25- T cell proliferation through a mechanism dependent from lymphotoxin alpha

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    IntroductionHuman Granzyme B (GZMB) regulatory B cells (Bregs) have suppressive properties on CD4+ effector T cells by a mechanism partially dependent on GZMB. Moreover, these cells may be easily induced in vitro making them interesting for cell therapy.MethodsWe characterized this population of in vitro induced GZMB+Bregs using single cell transcriptomics. To investigate their regulatory properties, Bregs or total B cells were also co-cultured with T cells and scRNAseq was used to identify receptor ligand interactions and to reveal gene expression changes in the T cells.ResultsWe find that Bregs exhibit a unique set of 149 genes differentially expressed and which are implicated in proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, and altered antigen presentation capacity consistent with their differentiated B cells profile. Notably, Bregs induced a strong inhibition of T cell genes associated to proliferation, activation, inflammation and apoptosis compared to total B cells. We identified and validated 5 receptor/ligand interactions between Bregs and T cells. Functional analysis using specific inhibitors was used to test their suppressive properties and we identified Lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) as a new and potent Breg ligand implicated in Breg suppressive properties.DiscussionWe report for the first time for a role of LTA in GZMB+Bregs as an enhancer of GZMB expression, and involved in the suppressive properties of GZMB+Bregs in human. The exact mechanism of LTA/GZMB function in this specific subset of Bregs remains to be determined

    Kidney allograft rejection is associated with an imbalance of B cells, regulatory T cells and differentiated CD28-CD8+ T cells: analysis of a cohort of 1095 graft biopsies

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    IntroductionThe human immune system contains cells with either effector/memory or regulatory functions. Besides the well-established CD4+CD25hiCD127lo regulatory T cells (Tregs), we and others have shown that B cells can also have regulatory functions since their frequency and number are increased in kidney graft tolerance and B cell depletion as induction therapy may lead to acute rejection. On the other hand, we have shown that CD28-CD8+ T cells represent a subpopulation with potent effector/memory functions. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that kidney allograft rejection may be linked to an imbalance of effector/memory and regulatory immune cells.MethodsBased on a large cohort of more than 1000 kidney graft biopsies with concomitant peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotyping, we investigated the association between kidney graft rejection and the percentage and absolute number of circulating B cells, Tregs, as well as the ratio of B cells to CD28-CD8+ T cells and the ratio of CD28-CD8+ T cells to Tregs. Kidney graft biopsies were interpreted according to the Banff classification and divided into 5 biopsies groups: 1) normal/subnormal, 2) interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy grade 2/3 (IFTA), 3) antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR), 4) T cell mediated-rejection (TCMR), and 5) borderline rejection. We compared group 1 with the other groups as well as with a combined group 3, 4, and 5 (rejection of all types) using multivariable linear mixed models.Results and discussionWe found that compared to normal/subnormal biopsies, rejection of all types was marginally associated with a decrease in the percentage of circulating B cells (p=0.06) and significantly associated with an increase in the ratio of CD28-CD8+ T cells to Tregs (p=0.01). Moreover, ABMR, TCMR (p=0.007), and rejection of all types (p=0.0003) were significantly associated with a decrease in the ratio of B cells to CD28-CD8+ T cells compared to normal/subnormal biopsies. Taken together, our results show that kidney allograft rejection is associated with an imbalance between immune cells with effector/memory functions and those with regulatory properties

    The Involvement of SMILE/TMTC3 in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response

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    The state of operational tolerance has been detected sporadically in some renal transplanted patients that stopped immunosuppressive drugs, demonstrating that allograft tolerance might exist in humans. Several years ago, a study by Brouard et al. identified a molecular signature of several genes that were significantly differentially expressed in the blood of such patients compared with patients with other clinical situations. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of one of these molecules over-expressed in the blood of operationally tolerant patients, SMILE or TMTC3, a protein whose function is still unknown.We first confirmed that SMILE mRNA is differentially expressed in the blood of operationally tolerant patients with drug-free long term graft function compared to stable and rejecting patients. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach and a colocalization study by confocal microscopy we furthermore report an interaction of SMILE with PDIA3, a molecule resident in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In accordance with this observation, SMILE silencing in HeLa cells correlated with the modulation of several transcripts involved in proteolysis and a decrease in proteasome activity. Finally, SMILE silencing increased HeLa cell sensitivity to the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a drug that induces ER stress via protein overload, and increased transcript expression of a stress response protein, XBP-1, in HeLa cells and keratinocytes.In this study we showed that SMILE is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, by modulating proteasome activity and XBP-1 transcript expression. This function of SMILE may influence immune cell behavior in the context of transplantation, and the analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress in transplantation may reveal new pathways of regulation in long-term graft acceptance thereby increasing our understanding of tolerance

    Earth as a Tool for Astrobiology—A European Perspective

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    The Pseudokinase TRIB1 in Immune Cells and Associated Disorders

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    Research advances in Tribbles homolog (TRIB) genes have established the consensus that this protein family plays roles in diverse biological conditions and regulates intracellular signaling networks and several human diseases. In this review, we focus on one member of the family, TRIB1, and its role at the crossroads of immune signaling. TRIB1 directly interacts with transcription factors such as FOXP3 and C/EBPα, with several signaling molecules such as MEK1 and MALT1 and directly acts on key cell signaling pathways such as the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Altogether, these interactions emphasize that TRIB1 is at the center of major cell signaling pathways while TRIB1 has cell-specific roles, potentially depending on the expressing cells and binding partners. In this review, we describe its roles in immune cells and highlight the interacting partners explaining these functions which suggests TRIB1 as a precise mediator of cellular homeostasis as well as in different cancers and immune-related disorders

    Expression des microARN dans le sang de patients transplantés rénaux

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    L'absence de rĂ©ponse des patients atteints de rejet chronique mĂ©diĂ© par les anticorps (RCHA) aux traitements classiques dĂ©montre le besoin urgent de nouvelles options thĂ©rapeutiques. Par ailleurs, l'Ă©tablissement d'une tolĂ©rance aux allogreffes rĂ©nales sans recours aux immunosuppresseurs est nĂ©cessaire pour Ă©viter leurs effets secondaires. Une meilleure comprĂ©hension des mĂ©canismes post-greffe est nĂ©cessaire tout comme le besoin de biomarqueurs pour prĂ©dire/diagnostiquer le devenir du greffon et distinguer parmi des patients sous traitement ceux pour lesquels il pourrait ĂȘtre arrĂȘtĂ©, appelĂ©s patients opĂ©rationnellement tolĂ©rants . Nous avons comparĂ© les caractĂ©ristiques des lymphocytes B pĂ©riphĂ©riques de ces deux groupes de patients Ă  des patients ayant une fonction stable de leur greffon sous immunosuppresseurs et Ă  des individus sains. Les patients tolĂ©rants prĂ©sentent un phĂ©notype B sanguin et l'expression de gĂšnes particuliers qui pourraient contribuer Ă  la maintenance de leur tolĂ©rance. Parmi les molĂ©cules rĂ©gulant l'expression de gĂšnes, les microARN ont Ă©tĂ© impliquĂ©s dans des mĂ©canismes biologiques et pathologiques. La mesure d'expression des microARN dans les cellules mononuclĂ©es du sang pĂ©riphĂ©rique de patients transplantĂ©s rĂ©naux nous a permis d'identifier des microARN associĂ©s Ă  la tolĂ©rance ou au RCHA. La surexpression de miR-142-3p dans les lymphocytes B de patients tolĂ©rants nous a conduit Ă  analyser les voies de signalisation impliquĂ©es, notamment celle du TGFb. Nos rĂ©sultats ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives pour la comprĂ©hension des mĂ©canismes post-greffe, particuliĂšrement celle des lymphocytes B, et l'utilisation de nouveaux biomarqueurs.The unresponsiveness of patients undergoing chronic antibody mediated rejection (CAMR) to classical treatment highlight the need for new clinical options. Furthermore, major side-effects of immunosuppression (IS) prompt the establishment of a tolerance to the allograft without the need for IS. In this context, a better understand of post-transplantation mechanisms is required as well as the need for biomarkers that could predict and/or diagnose graft outcome and distinguish among immunosuppressed patients, which ones could be weaned off IS, called operational tolerants . Here, we compared the characteristics of peripheral B cells from both patient groups, to that of others who had stable graft function but under IS, and to healthy volunteers. Thus, tolerants patients, have a particular blood B-cell phenotype and gene expression modifications that may contribute to the maintenance of their long-term drug free graft function. Among gene expression regulating molecules, microRNA, small non-coding RNA, are involved in biological mechanisms and diseases. We performed microRNA expression profiling from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from kidney transplanted recipients with operational tolerance, with CAMR or with stable graft function. Among them, we identified differentially microRNA associated either with tolerance or CAMR. The over-expression of miR-142-3p in B lymphocytes from tolerant patients lead us to analyze implicated pathways, including TGFb signaling. Our investigations open new perspectives for the understood of post-transplantation mechanisms, particularly with the implications of B lymphocytes, and the use of new diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers.NANTES-BU MĂ©decine pharmacie (441092101) / SudocSudocFranceF

    Blood gene expression predicts Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome

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    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), the main manifestation of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, leads to poor long-term survival after lung transplantation. Identifying predictors of BOS is essential to prevent the progression of dysfunction before irreversible damage occurs. By using a large set of 107 samples from lung recipients, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of whole blood to identify early biomarkers of BOS, including samples from 49 patients with stable function for at least 3 years, 32 samples collected at least 6 months before BOS diagnosis (prediction group), and 26 samples at or after BOS diagnosis (diagnosis group). An independent set from 25 lung recipients was used for validation by quantitative PCR (13 stables, 11 in the prediction group, and 8 in the diagnosis group). We identified 50 transcripts differentially expressed between stable and BOS recipients. Three genes, namely POU class 2 associating factor 1 (POU2AF1), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1A (TCL1A), and B cell lymphocyte kinase, were validated as predictive biomarkers of BOS more than 6 months before diagnosis, with areas under the curve of 0.83, 0.77, and 0.78 respectively. These genes allow stratification based on BOS risk (log-rank test p < 0.01) and are not associated with time posttransplantation. This is the first published large-scale gene expression analysis of blood after lung transplantation. The three-gene blood signature could provide clinicians with new tools to improve follow-up and adapt treatment of patients likely to develop BOS.0SCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe
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