2,915 research outputs found

    Monte Carlo algorithms are very effective in finding the largest independent set in sparse random graphs

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    The effectiveness of stochastic algorithms based on Monte Carlo dynamics in solving hard optimization problems is mostly unknown. Beyond the basic statement that at a dynamical phase transition the ergodicity breaks and a Monte Carlo dynamics cannot sample correctly the probability distribution in times linear in the system size, there are almost no predictions nor intuitions on the behavior of this class of stochastic dynamics. The situation is particularly intricate because, when using a Monte Carlo based algorithm as an optimization algorithm, one is usually interested in the out of equilibrium behavior which is very hard to analyse. Here we focus on the use of Parallel Tempering in the search for the largest independent set in a sparse random graph, showing that it can find solutions well beyond the dynamical threshold. Comparison with state-of-the-art message passing algorithms reveals that parallel tempering is definitely the algorithm performing best, although a theory explaining its behavior is still lacking.Comment: 14 pages, 12 figure

    One-loop topological expansion for spin glasses in the large connectivity limit

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    We apply for the first time a new one-loop topological expansion around the Bethe solution to the spin-glass model with field in the high connectivity limit, following the methodological scheme proposed in a recent work. The results are completely equivalent to the well known ones, found by standard field theoretical expansion around the fully connected model (Bray and Roberts 1980, and following works). However this method has the advantage that the starting point is the original Hamiltonian of the model, with no need to define an associated field theory, nor to know the initial values of the couplings, and the computations have a clear and simple physical meaning. Moreover this new method can also be applied in the case of zero temperature, when the Bethe model has a transition in field, contrary to the fully connected model that is always in the spin glass phase. Sharing with finite dimensional model the finite connectivity properties, the Bethe lattice is clearly a better starting point for an expansion with respect to the fully connected model. The present work is a first step towards the generalization of this new expansion to more difficult and interesting cases as the zero-temperature limit, where the expansion could lead to different results with respect to the standard one.Comment: 8 pages, 1 figur

    Ensemble renormalization group for disordered systems

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    We propose and study a renormalization group transformation that can be used also for models with strong quenched disorder, like spin glasses. The method is based on a mapping between disorder distributions, chosen such as to keep some physical properties (e.g., the ratio of correlations averaged over the ensemble) invariant under the transformation. We validate this ensemble renormalization group by applying it to the hierarchical model (both the diluted ferromagnetic version and the spin glass version), finding results in agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.Comment: 7 pages, 10 figure

    Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS-3) induces Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) expression in hepatic HepG2 cell line

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    The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway activated by proinflammatory cytokines, including the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-\u3b1). SOCS3 is also implicated in hypertriglyceridemia associated to insulin resistance. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels are frequently found to be positively correlated to insulin resistance and plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides concentrations. The present study aimed to investigate the possible role of TNF-\u3b1 and JAK/STAT pathway on de novo lipogenesis and PCSK9 expression in HepG2 cells. TNF-\u3b1 induced both SOCS3 and PCSK9 in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was inhibited by transfection with siRNA anti-STAT3, suggesting the involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway. Retroviral overexpression of SOCS3 in HepG2 cells (HepG2SOCS3) strongly inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and induced PCSK9 mRNA and protein, with no effect on its promoter activity and mRNA stability. Consistently, siRNA anti-SOCS3 reduced PCSK9 mRNA levels, whereas an opposite effect was observed with siRNA anti- STAT3. In addition, HepG2SOCS3 express higher mRNA levels of key enzymes involved in the de novo lipogenesis, such as fattyacid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)-1, and apoB. These responses were associated with a significant increase of SCD-1 protein, activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1), accumulation of cellular triglycerides, and secretion of apoB. HepG2SOCS3 show lower phosphorylation levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) Tyr896 and Akt Ser473 in response to insulin. Finally, insulin stimulation produced an additive effect with SOCS3 overexpression, further inducing PCSK9, SREBP-1, fatty acid synthase, and apoB mRNA. In conclusion, our data candidate PCSK9 as a gene involved in lipid metabolism regulated by proinflammatory cytokine TNF- in a SOCS3-dependent manner

    Loop expansion around the Bethe approximation through the MM-layer construction

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    For every physical model defined on a generic graph or factor graph, the Bethe MM-layer construction allows building a different model for which the Bethe approximation is exact in the large MM limit and it coincides with the original model for M=1M=1. The 1/M1/M perturbative series is then expressed by a diagrammatic loop expansion in terms of so-called fat-diagrams. Our motivation is to study some important second-order phase transitions that do exist on the Bethe lattice but are either qualitatively different or absent in the corresponding fully connected case. In this case the standard approach based on a perturbative expansion around the naive mean field theory (essentially a fully connected model) fails. On physical grounds, we expect that when the construction is applied to a lattice in finite dimension there is a small region of the external parameters close to the Bethe critical point where strong deviations from mean-field behavior will be observed. In this region, the 1/M1/M expansion for the corrections diverges and it can be the starting point for determining the correct non-mean-field critical exponents using renormalization group arguments. In the end, we will show that the critical series for the generic observable can be expressed as a sum of Feynman diagrams with the same numerical prefactors of field theories. However, the contribution of a given diagram is not evaluated associating Gaussian propagators to its lines as in field theories: one has to consider the graph as a portion of the original lattice, replacing the internal lines with appropriate one-dimensional chains, and attaching to the internal points the appropriate number of infinite-size Bethe trees to restore the correct local connectivity of the original model

    Safety Compliance in a Sample of Italian Mechanical Companies: The Role of Knowledge and Safety Climate

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    The accident rate in the Italian mechanical sector is still too high, and evidence-based interventions to improve safety performance are essential. To better address this, our study contributes to the understanding of how to promote safety compliance through safe behaviours by using a sample of Italian mechanical workers (n = 109). Before and after scheduled safety training, intervention data on organizational factors, as well as on individual factors affecting safety-related behaviours, were collected. Particularly, data were collected using multiple sources, including self-perception questionnaires (to measure the safety climate among the management and colleagues and the safety attitude), paper and pencil tests (to measure safety knowledge), and observations by personnel with experience in observation tasks (to measure safety behaviours objectively). A model class of competing general linear models was built to determine which of the models was best suited for predicting safety-related behaviours. The results showed that both knowledge and the management’s safety climate effectively promoted safety compliance. Crucial implications for the effectiveness of active teaching methods, along with the need for continuous training and the prominent role of the management team members in giving, through their actions, further relevance to the need to respect rules and procedures, were revealed. Finally, practical implications for researchers, corporate decision makers, government agencies, and international bodies are discussed

    Santa Maria degli Angeli: un monastero camaldolese “dimenticato” nel centro di Firenze

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    The topic of this publication is the Camaldolese monastery of Santa Maria degli Angeli, located in the historic center of Florence, in an area between via degli Alfani, via del Castellaccio and piazza Brunelleschi. The study of the religious complex, founded in 1295, was tackled with the dual purpose to reconstruct the historical-architectural events of the last four centuries and to identify the causes of the fractionation following its suppression in 1866. The fractionation between different properties resulted in the current loss of architectural legibility of the Camaldolese monastery; for this reason one of the most important religious and cultural centers of the Florentine fourteenth-fifteenth century was almost “forgotten” not only by the citizens, but also by historiography
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