204 research outputs found

    "What Parents Want": A Needs Assessment in Dublin South City

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    This report presents the findings on research on family-related services in Dublin with a specific focus on Dublin South City (DSC). The focus of the research concerns awareness of, perceived need for as well as reported usage of these services. For this report parents were interviewed in focus groups in Dublin South City and a city wide online survey was conducted

    Anthrofest 2016

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    The University of Pennsylvania anthropology annual undergraduate research conference known as ANTHROFEST brings together undergraduates involved in research across all concentrations in anthropology, as well as faculty and the broader undergraduate and graduate community. Each year, select students present and discuss their original research to the community at Penn. The conference is open to the public

    Attitudes and delivering brief interventions for heavy drinking in primary health care: analyses from the ODHIN five country cluster randomized factorial trial

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    Contains fulltext : 170028.pdf (publisher's version ) (Open Access)In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years) who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity). We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers' screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity

    Impact of practice, provider and patient characteristics on delivering screening and brief advice for heavy drinking in primary health care secondary analyses of data from the ODHIN five country cluster randomized factorial trial

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    BACKGROUND: The implementation of primary healthcare-based screening and advice that is effective in reducing heavy drinking can be enhanced with training. OBJECTIVES: Undertaking secondary analysis of the five-country ODHIN study, we test: the extent to which practice, provider and patient characteristics affect the likelihood of patients being screened and advised; the extent to which such characteristics moderate the impact of training in increasing screening and advice; and the extent to which training mitigates any differences due to such characteristics found at baseline. METHODS: A cluster randomized factorial trial involving 120 practices, 746 providers and 46 546 screened patients from Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Practices were randomized to receive training or not to receive training. The primary outcome measures were the proportion of adult patients screened, and the proportion of screen-positive patients advised. RESULTS: Nurses tended to screen more patients than doctors (OR = 3.1; 95%CI: 1.9, 4.9). Screen-positive patients were more likely to be advised by doctors than by nurses (OR = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.1), and more liable to be advised the higher their risk status (OR = 1.9; 95%CI: 1.3, 2.7). Training increased screening and advice giving, with its impact largely unrelated to practice, provider or patient characteristics. Training diminished the differences between doctors and nurses and between patients with low or high-risk status. CONCLUSIONS: Training primary healthcare providers diminishes the negative impacts that some practice, provider and patient characteristics have on the likelihood of patients being screened and advised. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Trial identifier: NCT01501552

    Impact of primary health care providers’ initial role security and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions in managing risky alcohol consumption: a cluster randomised factorial trial

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    Background: Brief interventions in primary healthcare to detect and intervene in risky alcohol consumption are cost-effective in reducing drinking problems, but poorly implemented in routine care. Although evidence about implementing brief interventions is growing, knowledge is limited with regard to impact of initial role security and therapeutic commitment on brief intervention implementation.Methods: In a cluster randomised factorial trial 120 Primary Healthcare Units (PHCUs) were randomised to eight groups: care as usual, training and support, financial reimbursement, and the opportunity to refer patients to an internet-based brief intervention (e-BI); paired combinations of these three strategies, and all three strategies combined. To explore the impact of initial role security and therapeutic commitment on implementing brief interventions, we performed multilevel linear regression analyses adapted to the factorial design. Results: Data from 746 providers of 120 PHCUs were included in the analyses. Baseline role security and therapeutic commitment were found not to influence implementation of brief interventions. Furthermore there were no significant interactions between these characteristics and allocated groups. Conclusions: The extent to which providers’ managed to change their brief intervention proportions when submitted to different implementation strategies was not determined by their initial attitudes towards alcohol problems. In future research more attention is needed for the causal relation between these parameters, as it can inform us whether to focus on these or not in implementation trajectories

    Trajectories of Big Five Personality Traits: A Coordinated Analysis of 16 Longitudinal Samples

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    This study assessed change in self‚Äźreported Big Five personality traits. We conducted a coordinated integrative data analysis using data from 16 longitudinal samples, comprising a total sample of over 60¬†000 participants. We coordinated models across multiple datasets and fit identical multi‚Äźlevel growth models to assess and compare the extent of trait change over time. Quadratic change was assessed in a subset of samples with four or more measurement occasions. Across studies, the linear trajectory models revealed declines in conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness. Non‚Äźlinear models suggested late‚Äźlife increases in neuroticism. Meta‚Äźanalytic summaries indicated that the fixed effects of personality change are somewhat heterogeneous and that the variability in trait change is partially explained by sample age, country of origin, and personality measurement method. We also found mixed evidence for predictors of change, specifically for sex and baseline age. This study demonstrates the importance of coordinated conceptual replications for accelerating the accumulation of robust and reliable findings in the lifespan developmental psychological sciences. ¬© 2020 European Association of Personality PsychologyPeer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/156004/1/per2259.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/156004/2/per2259-sup-0001-Data_S1.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/156004/3/per2259-sup-0002-Open_Practices_Disclosure_Form.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/156004/4/per2259_am.pd

    Personality Predicts Mortality Risk: An Integrative Data Analysis of 15 International Longitudinal Studies

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    This study examined the Big Five personality traits as predictors of mortality risk, and smoking as a mediator of that association. Replication was built into the fabric of our design: we used a Coordinated Analysis with 15 international datasets, representing 44,094 participants. We found that high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness were consistent predictors of mortality across studies. Smoking had a small mediating effect for neuroticism. Country and baseline age explained variation in effects: studies with older baseline age showed a pattern of protective effects (HR<1.00) for openness, and U.S. studies showed a pattern of protective effects for extraversion. This study demonstrated coordinated analysis as a powerful approach to enhance replicability and reproducibility, especially for aging-related longitudinal research.Funding support for this project was provided by the National Institute on Aging: P01-AG043362 (Integrative Analysis of Longitudinal Studies of Aging (IALSA), [Scott M. Hofer (PI)]), and Daniel K. Mroczek (CoInvestigator and Project Leader of the IALSA Personality & Health Project, as well as R01-AG018436 [Personality & Well-Being Trajectories in Adulthood, Daniel K. Mroczek, PI])
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