308 research outputs found

    Cambios en el control de la salud en el adolescente estudiante

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    Differences in gene expression and cytokine production by crystalline vs. amorphous silica in human lung epithelial cells

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Exposure to respirable crystalline silica particles, as opposed to amorphous silica, is associated with lung inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis (silicosis), and potentially with lung cancer. We used Affymetrix/GeneSifter microarray analysis to determine whether gene expression profiles differed in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS 2B) exposed to cristobalite vs. amorphous silica particles at non-toxic and equal surface areas (75 and 150 × 10<sup>6</sup>μm<sup>2</sup>/cm<sup>2</sup>). Bio-Plex analysis was also used to determine profiles of secreted cytokines and chemokines in response to both particles. Finally, primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) were used to comparatively assess silica particle-induced alterations in gene expression.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Microarray analysis at 24 hours in BEAS 2B revealed 333 and 631 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite at low (75) and high (150 × 10<sup>6</sup>μm<sup>2</sup>/cm<sup>2</sup>) amounts, respectively (p < 0.05/cut off ≥ 2.0-fold change). Exposure to amorphous silica micro-particles at high amounts (150 × 10<sup>6</sup>μm<sup>2</sup>/cm<sup>2</sup>) induced 108 significant gene changes. Bio-Plex analysis of 27 human cytokines and chemokines revealed 9 secreted mediators (p < 0.05) induced by crystalline silica, but none were induced by amorphous silica. QRT-PCR revealed that cristobalite selectively up-regulated stress-related genes and cytokines (<it>FOS, ATF3, IL6 </it>and <it>IL8</it>) early and over time (2, 4, 8, and 24 h). Patterns of gene expression in NHBE cells were similar overall to BEAS 2B cells. At 75 × 10<sup>6</sup>μm<sup>2</sup>/cm<sup>2</sup>, there were 339 significant alterations in gene expression induced by cristobalite and 42 by amorphous silica. Comparison of genes in response to cristobalite (75 × 10<sup>6</sup>μm<sup>2</sup>/cm<sup>2</sup>) revealed 60 common, significant gene alterations in NHBE and BEAS 2B cells.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Cristobalite silica, as compared to synthetic amorphous silica particles at equal surface area concentrations, had comparable effects on the viability of human bronchial epithelial cells. However, effects on gene expression, as well as secretion of cytokines and chemokines, drastically differed, as the crystalline silica induced more intense responses. Our studies indicate that toxicological testing of particulates by surveying viability and/or metabolic activity is insufficient to predict their pathogenicity. Moreover, they show that acute responses of the lung epithelium, including up-regulation of genes linked to inflammation, oxidative stress, and proliferation, as well as secretion of inflammatory and proliferative mediators, can be indicative of pathologic potential using either immortalized lines (BEAS 2B) or primary cells (NHBE). Assessment of the degree and magnitude of these responses <it>in vitro </it>are suggested as predictive in determining the pathogenicity of potentially harmful particulates.</p

    Direct measurements of the effects of salt and surfactant on interaction forces between colloidal particles at water-oil interfaces

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    The forces between colloidal particles at a decane-water interface, in the presence of low concentrations of a monovalent salt (NaCl) and of the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in the aqueous subphase, have been studied using laser tweezers. In the absence of electrolyte and surfactant, particle interactions exhibit a long-range repulsion, yet the variation of the interaction for different particle pairs is found to be considerable. Averaging over several particle pairs was hence found to be necessary to obtain reliable assessment of the effects of salt and surfactant. It has previously been suggested that the repulsion is consistent with electrostatic interactions between a small number of dissociated charges in the oil phase, leading to a decay with distance to the power -4 and an absence of any effect of electrolyte concentration. However, the present work demonstrates that increasing the electrolyte concentration does yield, on average, a reduction of the magnitude of the interaction force with electrolyte concentration. This implies that charges on the water side also contribute significantly to the electrostatic interactions. An increase in the concentration of SDS leads to a similar decrease of the interaction force. Moreover the repulsion at fixed SDS concentrations decreases over longer times. Finally, measurements of three-body interactions provide insight into the anisotropic nature of the interactions. The unique time-dependent and anisotropic interactions between particles at the oil-water interface allow tailoring of the aggregation kinetics and structure of the suspension structure.Comment: Submitted to Langmui

    Serological markers for prediction of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in Crohn's disease

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    peer reviewedOBJECTIVES: The use of monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies (infliximab, Remicade) is a new therapeutic approach for severe refractory luminal or fistulizing, Crohn's disease (CD). However, up to 30% of patients do not respond to this treatment. So far, no parameters predictive of response to anti-TNT have been identified. Our aim was to determine whether serological markers ASCA (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies) or pANCA (perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) could identify Crohn's patients likely to benefit from anti-TNF therapy. METHODS: Serum samples of 279 CID patients were analyzed for ASCA and pANCA before anti-TNF therapy. A blinded physician determined clinical response at week 4 (refractory luminal CD) or week 10 (fistulizing CD) after the first infusion of infliximab (5 mg/kg). RESULTS: Overall, there was no relationship between ASCA or pANCA and response to therapy. However, lower response rates were observed for patients with refractory intestinal disease carrying the pANCA+/ASCA- combination, although this lacked significance (p = 0.067). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of infliximab-treated patients, neither ASCA nor pANCA could predict response to treatment. However, the combination pANCA+/ASCA- might warrant further investigation for its value in predicting nonresponse in patients with refractory luminal disease

    Radiotherapy treatment planning of prostate cancer using magnetic resonance imaging

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    Purpose.-Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an increasing role in radiotherapy dose planning. Indeed, MRI offers superior soft tissue contrast compared to computerized tomography (CT) and therefore could provide a better delineation of target volumes and organs at risk than CT for radiotherapy. Furthermore, an MRI-only radiotherapy workflow would suppress registration errors inherent to the registration of MRI with CT. However, the estimation of the electronic density of tissues using MRI images is still a challenging issue. The purpose of this work was to design and evaluate a pseudo-CT generation method for prostate cancer treatments. Materials and methods.-A pseudo-CT was generated for ten prostate cancer patients using an elastic deformation based method. For each patient, dose delivered to the patient was calculated using both the planning CT and the pseudo-CT. Dose differences between CT and pseudo-CT were investigated. Results.-Mean dose relative difference in the planning target volume is 0.9% on average and ranges from 0.1% to 1.7%. In organs at risks, this value is 1.8%, 0.8%, 0.8% and 1% on average in the rectum, the right and left femoral heads, and the bladder respectively. Conclusio.-The dose calculated using the pseudo-CT is very close to the dose calculated using the CT for both organs at risk and PTV. These results confirm that pseudo-CT images generated using the proposed method could be used to calculate radiotherapy treatment doses on MRI images. (C) 2019 Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.Peer reviewe

    Factors associated with co-occurrence of large carnivores in a human-dominated landscape

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    We investigated the factors facilitating co-occurrence of two large carnivores, tigers (Panthera tigris) and common leopards (Panthera pardus), within a human-dominated landscape. We estimated their density and population size using camera-trap photographs and examined spatial segregation of habitats, temporal activity pattern, and diets in Chitwan National Park, Nepal. A Bayesian spatially-explicit capture-recapture model estimated densities of 3.2–4.6 (3.94 ± 0.37) tigers and 2.6–4.1 (3.31 ± 0.4) leopards per 100 km2 with abundance of 70–102 tigers and 66–105 leopards. Tigers occupied the prime habitats (grasslands and riverine forests) in alluvial floodplains of the Park whereas leopards appeared in Sal forests and marginal areas where livestock are present. Both tigers and leopards showed crepuscular activity patterns with a high overlap but tigers were less active during the day compared to leopards. Leopards’ activity in the day increased in the presence of tigers. Tiger and leopard diet overlapped considerably (90%). Compared to leopards, tigers consumed a higher proportion of the large prey and a smaller proportion of livestock. Our study demonstrates that sympatric large carnivores can coexist in high densities in prey-rich areas that contain a mosaics of habitats. To increase the resilience and size of the Chitwan carnivore population, strategies are needed to increase prey biomass and prevent livestock depredation in adjacent forests. Long-term monitoring is also required to obtain a detailed understanding of the interaction between the large carnivores and their effects on local communities living in forest fringes within the landscape.Global Challenges (FSW
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