18 research outputs found

    The evolution of nutritional care in children and young people with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a narrative review

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Wiley via the DOI in this recordData availability statement: Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no new data were created or analysed in this study.Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common paediatric malignancy in the world. Advances in treatment protocols have resulted in survival rates of >80% in most high‐income countries (HIC); however, children and young people (CYP) with ALL continue to face significant nutrition‐related challenges during treatment. Methods: This narrative review outlines the changing landscape of treatment and survivorship for CYP with ALL and the advances in nutrition knowledge that call for changes to clinical nutrition practice. Results: The incidence of ALL has remained stable in HIC; however, there have been significant advances in survival over the past 30 years. Overweight and obesity are increasingly prevalent in CYP with ALL at diagnosis, during treatment and in survivorship. Coupled with poor diet quality, high‐energy and saturated fat intakes, altered eating behaviours and inactivity, this necessitates the need for a shift in nutrition intervention. Undernutrition remains a concern for CYP with high‐risk treatment protocols where oral or enteral nutrition support remains a cornerstone of maintaining nutrition status. Conclusions: With improved treatment protocols and high survival rates, a shift to focusing on diet quality, prevention of excessive weight gain and obesity during treatment and survivorship is necessary

    Nutritional screening and assessment of paediatric cancer patients: A quality improvement project (baseline results)

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the publisher via the DOI in this recordBackground: The department of Haematology and Oncology at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children (RHSC) in Edinburgh have developed their own nutritional standards specific to paediatric cancer. We aimed to audit the current nutritional practice in anthropometry, nutritional biochemistry and malnutrition screening for paediatric cancer patients against nutritional standards to identify areas for nutritional-practice improvement and progress nutrition-related clinical outcomes. Methods: A Clinical audit was conducted >20 weeks between 2015 and 2017 in three data collection locations (inpatient (IP), day-care (DC), or outpatient (OP)) at RHSC. We included patients aged 0–18 years and undergoing treatment for diagnosed malignant childhood cancer (ICCC-3 or Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis). Data were collected by analysing documentation and observing clinical practice for frequency and mode of administration of anthropometry, malnutrition screening, nutritional biochemistry and resulting documentation completion. Results were presented as descriptive statistics and stratified by percentage of standard met (100%, 99-70%, <70%). Results: 185 audited patient records (22 IP, 54 DC and 109 OP) were analysed. The areas which were <70% of the standard were: height and weight documentation for DC; head-circumference for IP; arm anthropometry assessment for all locations; initial PYMS screening and re-screening in IP; malnutrition screening in DC and OP; and initial assessment and re-assessment for serum vitamins D, A, E, B12 and parathyroid hormone levels. Conclusion: Baseline nutritional practice was successfully established, identifying areas for practice improvement in the RHSC Paediatric Oncology and Haematology Department; this will be implemented in the next step of the audit to optimise patient care

    Consumption of Green Coffee Reduces Blood Pressure and Body Composition by Influencing 11β-HSD1 Enzyme Activity in Healthy Individuals: A Pilot Crossover Study Using Green and Black Coffee

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    Dietary polyphenols may have a protective role against the development of CVD. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of green coffee (GC), rich in chlorogenic acid, and black coffee (BC) on cardiovascular markers. A randomised pilot crossover study was performed on healthy subjects who consumed both coffees for 2 weeks. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and arterial elasticity after each intervention and collected urine samples to monitor antioxidant capacity. Free cortisol and cortisone levels were obtained from urine and analysed by specific ELISA methods. Systolic blood pressure (P=0.018) and arterial elasticity (P=0.001) were significantly reduced after GC. BMI (P=0.04 for BC; P=0.01 for GC) and abdominal fat (P=0.01 for BC; P=0.009 for GC) were also significantly reduced with no changes in energy intake. Urinary free cortisol was significantly reduced from 125.6±85.9 nmol/day to 76.0±54.9 nmol/day following GC and increased to 132.1±89.1 nmol/day after BC. Urinary free cortisone increased by 18% following BC and 9% following GC (nonsignificant). Cortisol/cortisone ratio (indicating 11β-HSD1 activity) was reduced after GC (from 3.5±1.9 to 1.7±1.04, P=0.002). This suggests that GC can play a role in reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Further research including hypertensive and overweight individuals will now be justified to clarify whether GC could have a therapeutic role in CVD

    Maximal sustainable energy intake during transatlantic ocean rowing is insufficient for total energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass maintenance

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Wiley via the DOI in this recordData availability statement: Data can be made available upon reasonable request by contacting Professor F. B. Stephens at [email protected] of extreme endurance have suggested that there is an alimentary limit to energy intake (EI) of ∼2.5 × resting metabolic rate (RMR). To gain further insight, this study aimed to simultaneously measure EI, total energy expenditure (TEE) body mass and muscle mass in a large cohort of males and females of varying ages during a transatlantic rowing race. Forty-nine competitors (m = 32, f = 17; age 24–67 years; time at sea 46 ± 7 days) in the 2020 and 2021 Talisker Whisky Atlantic Challenge rowed 12–18 hday−1 for ∼3000 miles. TEE was assessed in the final week of the row using 2H218O doubly labelled water, and EI was analysed from daily ration packs over this period. Thickness of relatively active (vastus lateralis, intermedius, biceps brachaii and rectus abdominus) and inactive (gastrocnemius, soleus and triceps) muscles was measured pre (<7 days) and post (<24 h) row using ultrasound. Body mass was measured and used to calculate RMR from standard equations. There were no sex differences in males and females in EI (2.5 ± 0.5 and 2.3 ± 0.4 × RMR, respectively, P = 0.3050), TEE (2.5 ± 1.0 and 2.3 ± 0.4 × RMR, respectively, P = 0.5170), or body mass loss (10.2 ± 3.1% and 10.0 ± 3.0%, respectively, P = 0.8520), and no effect of age on EI (P = 0.5450) or TEE (P = 0.9344). Muscle loss occurred exclusively in the calf (15.7% ± 11.4% P < 0.0001), whilst other muscles remained unchanged. After 46 days of prolonged ultra-endurance ocean rowing incurring 10% body mass loss, maximal sustainable EI of ∼2.5 × RMR was unable to meet total TEE suggesting that there is indeed a physiological capacity to EI.Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC

    The impact of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D on pulmonary function and exercise physiology in cystic fibrosis: a multicentre retrospective study

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley via the DOI in this recordBackground 25‐hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) may exert immunomodulatory effects on respiratory health, which may translate to improvements in exercise physiology. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether plasma 25OHD is associated with lung function and aerobic fitness in people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF). Methods A multi‐centre retrospective review of pwCF (>9 years old) attending the Royal Hospital for Sick Children (Edinburgh) or Wessex CF‐Unit (Southampton) was performed between July 2017 to October 2019. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Plasma 25OHD measured closest in time to clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and/or spirometry (forced expiratory volume FEV1% predicted) was recorded. Pancreatic insufficiency was diagnosed based on faecal elastase of <100 µg/g. We performed multiple‐regression analysis with aerobic fitness outcomes [peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)] and FEV1% predicted as primary outcomes. Results Ninety pwCF [mean±SD age: 19.1±8.6 years, 54 (60%) children, 48 (53%) males and 88 (98%) Caucasian] were included. 25OHD deficiency and insufficiency was 15 (17%) and 44 (49%) respectively. 25OHD deficiency and insufficiency was significantly associated with pancreatic insufficiency (χ2(4.8); p = 0.02). Plasma 25OHD was not significantly associated with FEV1% predicted [R2 = 0.06; p= 0.42; 95%; CI (‐0.09 ‐ 0.19)] or VO2peak [R2= 0.04; p= 0.07; 95% CI (‐011 ‐ 0.005)] in all pwCF. However, 25OHD was significantly associated with both FEV1% [R2= 0.15; p= 0.02; 95% CI (1.99 ‐ 2.64)] and VO2peak [R2= 0.13; p= 0.05; 95% CI (‐0.26 – (‐0.005)] in the paediatric cohort. Conclusion We showed that 25OHD is associated with improved lung function and aerobic fitness in children and adolescents with CF. Mechanistic and high‐quality prospective studies including both lung function and aerobic fitness as primary outcomes are now warranted.NHS Lothian Research and Development Offic