506 research outputs found

    Research and Development for a Gadolinium Doped Water Cherenkov Detector

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    The proposed introduction of a soluble gadolinium (Gd) compound into water Cherenkov detectors can result in a high efficiency for the detection of free neutrons capturing on the Gd. The delayed 8 MeV gamma cascades produced by these captures, in coincidence with a prompt positron signal, serve to uniquely identify electron antineutrinos interacting via inverse beta decay. Such coincidence detection can reduce backgrounds, allowing a large Gd-enhanced water Cherenkov detector to make the first observation of supernova relic neutrinos and high precision measurements of Japan's reactor antineutrino flux, while still allowing for all current physics studies to be continued. Now, a dedicated Gd test facility is operating in the Kamioka Mine. This new facility houses everything needed to successfully operate a Gd doped water Cherenkov detector. Successful running of this facility will demonstrate that adding Gd salt to SK is both safe for the detector and is capable of delivering the expected physics benefits.Comment: Proceedings from the Technology and Instrumentation for Particle Physics 2011 (TIPP 2011) conferenc

    Solar Neutrino Results from Super-Kamiokande

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    Super-Kamiokande-IV (SK-IV) data taking began in September of 2008, after upgrading the electronics and data acquisition system. Due to these upgrades and improvements to water system dynamics, calibration and analysis techniques, a solar neutrino signal could be extracted at recoil electron kinetic energies as low as 3.5 MeV. When the SK-IV data is combined with the previous three SK phases, the SK extracted solar neutrino flux is found to be [2.37\pm0.015\mbox{(stat.)}\pm0.04\mbox{(syst.)}]\times10^6/(cm2^{2}sec). The combination of the SK recoil electron energy spectra slightly favors distortions due to a changing electron flavor content. Such distortions are predicted when assuming standard solar neutrino oscillation solutions. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate results in a day-night asymmetry of [−3.2±1.1[-3.2\pm1.1(stat.)±0.5\pm0.5(syst.)]%\%. A solar neutrino global oscillation analysis including all current solar neutrino data, as well as KamLAND reactor antineutrino data, measures the solar mixing angle as sin⁡2θ12=0.305±0.013\sin^2\theta_{12}=0.305\pm0.013, the solar neutrino mass squared splitting as Δm212=7.49−0.17+0.19×10−5\Delta m^2_{21}=7.49^{+0.19}_{-0.17}\times10^{-5}eV2^2 and sin⁡2θ13=0.026−0.012+0.017\sin^2\theta_{13}=0.026^{+0.017}_{-0.012}

    Should cytologists diagnose clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma on cytologic material?

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    Radiation and Androgen Deprivation Therapy With or Without Docetaxel in the Management of Nonmetastatic Unfavorable-Risk Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Trial

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    PURPOSE Although docetaxel is not recommended when managing men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer (PC) given negative or inconclusive results from previous randomized trials, unstudied benefits may exist. METHODS Between September 21, 2005, and January 13, 2015, we randomly assigned 350 men 1:1 with T1c-4N0M0 unfavorable-risk PC to receive radiation therapy (RT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus docetaxel (60 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks for three cycles before RT and 20 mg/m2 once weekly during RT) versus ADT + RT. We evaluated the treatment effect of adding docetaxel to ADT + RT on the primary end point of overall survival (OS) and the incidence of RT-induced cancers and explored whether the impact of the treatment effect on OS differed within prostate-specific antigen (PSA) subgroups (\u3c 4, \u3e 20 v 4-20 ng/mL) using the interaction test for heterogeneity adjusted for age and PC prognostic factors. RESULTS After a median follow-up of 10.2 years, 89 men died (25.43%); of these, 42 from PC (47.19%). Although OS was not significantly increased in the docetaxel arm (the restricted mean survival time over 10 years was 9.11 v 8.82 years; P = .22), significantly fewer RT-induced cancers were observed (10-year estimates: 0.61% v 4.90%; age-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.97; P = .046). The treatment effect of adding docetaxel to ADT + RT on OS significantly differed in men with a PSA \u3c 4 ng/mL versus 4-20 ng/mL (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.27 and 1.51, respectively) because of less PC-specific mortality on the docetaxel arm (0.00% v 28.57%) among men with PSA \u3c 4 ng/mL. CONCLUSION Adding docetaxel to ADT + RT did not prolong OS in men with unfavorable-risk PC, but decreased RT-induced cancer incidence, and may prolong OS in the subgroup of men with a PSA \u3c 4 ng/mL by reducing PC-specific mortality

    Reporting Gleason grade/score in synoptic reports of radical prostatectomies

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    Context: The format of a synoptic report can significantly affect the accuracy, speed, and preference with which a reader can retrieve information. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare different formats of Gleason grading/score in synoptic reports of radical prostatectomies. Methods: The performance of 16 nonpathologists (cancer registrars, MDs, medical non-MDs, and nonmedical) at identifying specific information in various formatted synoptic reports using a computerized quiz that measured both accuracy and speed. Results: Compared to the standard format (primary, secondary, tertiary grades, and total score on separate lines), omitting tertiary grade when "Not applicable" reduced accuracy (72 vs. 97%, P total score) were associated with increased speed of data extraction (18 and 24%, respectively, P < 0.001). The single line format was more accurate (100% vs. 97%, P = 0.02). No user preferred the biopsy format, and only 7/16 users preferred the single line format. Conclusions : Different report formats for Gleason grading significantly affect users speed, accuracy, and preference; users do not always prefer either speed or accuracy

    Differences in breast cancer hormone receptor status in ethnic groups: a London population.

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    BACKGROUND: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with different ethnic groups in the United States (US), however this has not previously been examined in a population-based study within the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Electronic pathology reports from the North East London Cancer Network (NELCN) on women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2007 were collated. The statuses of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER-2 were extracted. Women were classified as having TNBC if all three receptor statuses were negative, and as not having TNBC if at least one receptor was positive or borderline. Logistic regression was used to quantify the association between TNBC and ethnicity, adjusting for age, year of diagnosis and socioeconomic deprivation. Overall survival in different ethnic groups was examined using Cox regression, adjusting as appropriate for age, stage of disease, triple negative status, year of diagnosis, socioeconomic deprivation and recorded treatment. RESULTS: There were 2417 women resident in NELCN diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2007, and TNBC status was determined for 1228 (51%) women. Overall, of women who had their TNBC status determined, 128 (10%) were diagnosed with TNBC. Compared with White women, Black (odds ratio [OR]=2.81, p<0.001) and South Asian (OR=1.80, p=0.044) women with breast cancer were more likely to have TNBC. Black women had a worse age-adjusted survival than White women (hazard ratio [HR]=2.05, p<0.001). This was attenuated by further adjustment for stage of disease (1.52, p=0.032) and triple negative status (1.31, p=0.175). CONCLUSION: Better methods of early detection may need to be developed in addition to more effective systemic treatment in order to improve outcomes for women with TNBC
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