5 research outputs found

    Perceptions of surveillance: exploring feelings held by Black community leaders in Boston toward camera enforcement of roadway infractions

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    Roadway camera enforcement programs have been found to effectively reduce vehicle travel speeds, as well as decrease the number and severity of collisions. Despite a wealth of evaluative research confirming this enforcement approach's aptitude at promoting safer roadway behavior, fewer than 50 % of US states currently host camera-based programs. Public opposition is frequently cited as the cause for the slow proliferation of this enforcement strategy. However, with public demand for police reform having an increasing presence on the national political stage, how might feelings toward camera technology currently stand among groups most marginalized by existing enforcement systems, and how might those feelings vary by type of enforcement application? Through a series of focus groups, this work centers Black voices on matters of surveillance and roadway enforcement by discussing sentiment toward camera programs with Black community leaders. This discussion is contextually situated in Boston, Massachusetts, where legislation that would allow for camera enforcement of roadway infractions is actively being deliberated in the State Senate. Findings culminate in a list of right-sizing and procedural recommendations for policy makers hoping to gain support for camera enforcement, improve roadway safety, and advance racial equity in our systems of policing and governance

    An evaluation of the impact of COVID-19 safety measures in public transit spaces on riders' Worry of virus contraction

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    The coronavirus pandemic has brought about global change in travel behavior. Transit ridership volumes have dropped to record lows. Concerning environmental, health, and social consequences lie in store if transit networks are not able to regain a substantial portion of pre-pandemic users. Transit providers have implemented several interventions aimed at both slowing the spread of the virus and retaining riders as travel restrictions lift. While the effectiveness of these measures has been evaluated with respect to spread rate reduction, little consideration has been given to their impact on riders' feelings of worry regarding virus contraction. By deploying a photo-simulation approach in a randomized control trial, this study finds that level of compliance with safety measures and the conditions of transit spaces themselves significantly impact riders' levels of worry. Given these findings, a series of recommendations are made regarding compliance practices that are expected to lessen rider worry regarding the risks of COVID-19 infection

    A meta-analysis of the impact of rail stations on property values: applying a transit planning lens

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    Access to transit infrastructure is valuable. In areas surrounding rail stations, some of that value gets absorbed by property markets. Since 1970, over 200 case studies worldwide have explored the extent to which transit access impacts property value uplift. However, findings from this body of research vary widely. In an attempt to explain this variation, previous meta-analytic studies have focused on testing the roles that built environment elements, temporal factors, and modelling techniques play in shaping the observed relationship between proximate positioning from rail stations and property pricing. This study expands on these meta-analyses by introducing the first examination of how transit service elements – e.g. frequency, fare, reliability – impact rail-induced residential property value uplift. It further contributes to the literature by expanding the range of geo-comparability of uplift findings across four continents, examining the potential effects of the Global Financial Crisis of the late 2000s, and adding 10 new variables of potential influence not only under the banner of ‘transit service’, but pertaining to neighborhood socio-demographics and housing policy as well. Findings reveal that factors of geography, housing data type, race and ethnicity, rent control policies, rail type, transit cost, and transit network expanse all significantly affect rail access uplift magnitude ranging from depreciating effects of 7.4 percentage points to appreciating effects of 9.6 percentage points. Beyond helping to explain variation across the literature, these findings can be a useful tool for policymakers combatting trends of increasing market-driven displacement from transit-rich areas, those pursuing financing mechanisms for transit infrastructure, and to transit planners concerned with how their decisions may affect matters of housing equity for the communities they serve

    Transit as an agent of equity in the shaping of Detroit's future

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    Thesis: M.C.P., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, 2016.Cataloged from PDF version of thesis.Includes bibliographical references (pages 95-99).Black America has been made subject to hatred-fueled mistreatment of near incomparable magnitude and duration for over four centuries of this nation's history. From the shackles of slavery to the systematic disenfranchisement that came with ghettoization and redlining practices by all levels of government, to hair politics, and beyond, Black America is characterized by a people systemically stunted by the country's power majority. These centuries of disenfranchisement are very much felt in the present in Detroit-the country's blackest city by population proportion-as disparities in suffering between blacks and non-blacks in the categories of mortality and unemployment, educational attainment, instances of crime, and property foreclosures are shockingly large. But what role does the planner have in mitigating these injustices and advancing the societal standing of a people structurally wronged? Here it is argued that what is required is a redefining of equity, and the adoption of the professional ideology of Reparations Planning-a set of principles defined in Chapter 1. These ideals are then operationalized an applied to the practice of transit network design. The result of this application is two distinct models, both envisioned for the city of Detroit, whose specific objectives are the provision of increased access to economic opportunity for Black America. These models are then analyzed against the existing condition of mobility in the city as well as against one another. Finally, both networks are visualized in consumer-friendly transit maps and discussed alongside several other fantasy rapid transit proposals for Motor City. This work seeks to recruit planners as soldiers for a battle that must not be waged passively; in Detroit or elsewhere. One that must not be diluted or conflated with the plight of the poor or that of other marginalized groups. Whatever the future of the Black Lives Matter movement may be, it has brought back into mainstream media and dinner table conversation the disparate reality lived by members of the black race in a nation that never welcomed them, has struggled to accept them, and has done all in its power to limit their capacity for greatness. What lies in the following pages is a call to planners to not let the wave that this movement has swelled pass by without mechanizing its potential for forward change.by Lindiwe-Claudia Rennert.M.C.P

    An evaluation of the impact of COVID-19 safety measures in public transit spaces on riders\u27 Worry of virus contraction

    No full text
    The coronavirus pandemic has brought about global change in travel behavior. Transit ridership volumes have dropped to record lows. Concerning environmental, health, and social consequences lie in store if transit networks are not able to regain a substantial portion of pre-pandemic users. Transit providers have implemented several interventions aimed at both slowing the spread of the virus and retaining riders as travel restrictions lift. While the effectiveness of these measures has been evaluated with respect to spread rate reduction, little consideration has been given to their impact on riders\u27 feelings of worry regarding virus contraction. By deploying a photo-simulation approach in a randomized control trial, this study finds that level of compliance with safety measures and the conditions of transit spaces themselves significantly impact riders\u27 levels of worry. Given these findings, a series of recommendations are made regarding compliance practices that are expected to lessen rider worry regarding the risks of COVID-19 infection
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