471 research outputs found

    First results from the AX-PET demonstrator

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    The AX-PET demonstrator is based on a new concept in PET detectors, with LYSO crystals aligned along the z coordinate (patient's axis) and WLS (Wave-length shifter) strips placed orthogonal to them. This kind of structure permits to avoid parallax errors due to different depths of interaction of the photons in the crystals, to register the three coordinates of the impinging photon and to reconstruct Compton events. In this way both the spatial resolution and the sensitivity can be highly improved. Moreover, as both the LYSO crystals and the strips are readout via Geiger-mode Avalanche Photo Diodes (G-APDs) the detector is insensitive to magnetic fields and is then suitable to be used in a combined PET/MRI apparatus. A complete Monte Carlo simulation and dedicated reconstruction software, suited to the particular geometry arrangement, have been developed. The two final modules, each composed by 48 crystals and 156 WLS strips have been built and fully characterized in a dedicated test set-up. The results on the performances of the system obtained with a 22Na point source (0.25 mm diameter) are reported

    Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

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    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation