34 research outputs found

    Neutron capture cross section of 139 La

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    The neutron capture cross section of 139La{}^{139}\mathrm{La} has been measured relative to that of 197Au{}^{197}\mathrm{Au} by means of the activation method. The sample was irradiated in a quasistellar neutron spectrum for kT=25keVkT=25\mathrm{keV} generated via the 7Li(p,n)7Be{}^{7}\mathrm{Li}{(p,n)}^{7}\mathrm{Be} reaction with the proton energy adjusted 30 keV above the threshold. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for energies kT=5‚ąí‚ąí100keV.kT=5--100\mathrm{keV}. The new value for kT=30keVkT=30\mathrm{keV} is found to be 31.6\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.8\mathrm{mb}, 18% lower and considerably less uncertain than the previously recommended value of 38.4\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}2.7\mathrm{mb}. With these results the s- and r-process components could be more accurately determined, making lanthanum a reliable s- and r-process indicator in stellar spectroscopy

    Galactic chemical evolution of radioactive isotopes

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    The presence of short-lived (‚ąľ Myr) radioactive isotopes in meteoritic inclusions at the time of their formation represents a unique opportunity to study the circumstances that led to the formation of the Solar System. To interpret these observations we need to calculate the evolution of radioactive-to-stable isotopic ratios in the Galaxy. We present an extension of the open-source galactic chemical evolution codes NuPyCEE and JINAPyCEE that enables to track the decay of radioactive isotopes in the interstellar medium. We show how the evolution of isotopic ratio depends on the star formation history and efficiency, star-togas mass ratio, and galactic outflows. Given the uncertainties in the observations used to calibrate our model, our predictions for isotopic ratios at the time of formation of the Sun are uncertain by a factor of 3.6. At that time, to recover the actual radioactive-to-stable isotopic ratios predicted by our model, one can multiply the steady-state solution (see Equation 1) by 2.3 +3.4 ‚ąí0.7. However, in the cases where the radioactive isotope has a half-life longer than ‚ąľ 200 Myr, or the target radioactive or stable isotopes have mass-and/or metallicity-depended production rates, or they originate from different sources with different delay-time distributions, or the reference isotope is radioactive, our codes should be used for more accurate solutions. Our preliminary calculations confirm the dichotomy between radioactive nuclei in the early Solar System with r-and s-process origin, and that 55 Mn and 60 Fe can be explained by galactic chemical evolution, while 26 Al cannot

    The Status and Future of Direct Nuclear Reaction Measurements for Stellar Burning

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    The study of stellar burning began just over 100 years ago. Nonetheless, we do not yet have a detailed picture of the nucleosynthesis within stars and how nucleosynthesis impacts stellar structure and the remnants of stellar evolution. Achieving this understanding will require precise direct measurements of the nuclear reactions involved. This report summarizes the status of direct measurements for stellar burning, focusing on developments of the last couple of decades, and offering a prospectus of near-future developments.Comment: Accepted to Journal of Physics G as a Major Report. Corresponding author: Zach Meisel ([email protected]

    Catching Element Formation In The Act

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    Gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic photons in nature to address some of the most pressing puzzles in contemporary astrophysics. It encompasses a wide range of objects and phenomena: stars, supernovae, novae, neutron stars, stellar-mass black holes, nucleosynthesis, the interstellar medium, cosmic rays and relativistic-particle acceleration, and the evolution of galaxies. MeV gamma-rays provide a unique probe of nuclear processes in astronomy, directly measuring radioactive decay, nuclear de-excitation, and positron annihilation. The substantial information carried by gamma-ray photons allows us to see deeper into these objects, the bulk of the power is often emitted at gamma-ray energies, and radioactivity provides a natural physical clock that adds unique information. New science will be driven by time-domain population studies at gamma-ray energies. This science is enabled by next-generation gamma-ray instruments with one to two orders of magnitude better sensitivity, larger sky coverage, and faster cadence than all previous gamma-ray instruments. This transformative capability permits: (a) the accurate identification of the gamma-ray emitting objects and correlations with observations taken at other wavelengths and with other messengers; (b) construction of new gamma-ray maps of the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies where extended regions are distinguished from point sources; and (c) considerable serendipitous science of scarce events -- nearby neutron star mergers, for example. Advances in technology push the performance of new gamma-ray instruments to address a wide set of astrophysical questions.Comment: 14 pages including 3 figure

    Coulomb dissociation of N 20,21

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    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N20,21 are reported. Relativistic N20,21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the N19(n,ő≥)N20 and N20(n,ő≥)N21 excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The N19(n,ő≥)N20 rate is up to a factor of 5 higher at

    Measurement of the 244^{244}Cm and 246^{246}Cm Neutron-Induced Cross Sections at the n_TOF Facility

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    The neutron capture reactions of the 244^{244}Cm and 246^{246}Cm isotopes open the path for the formation of heavier Cm isotopes and of heavier elements such as Bk and Cf in a nuclear reactor. In addition, both isotopes belong to the minor actinides with a large contribution to the decay heat and to the neutron emission in irradiated fuels proposed for the transmutation of nuclear waste and fast critical reactors. The available experimental data for both isotopes are very scarce. We measured the neutron capture cross section with isotopically enriched samples of 244^{244}Cm and 246^{246}Cm provided by JAEA. The measurement covers the range from 1 eV to 250 eV in the n_TOF Experimental Area 2 (EAR-2). In addition, a normalization measurement with the 244^{244}Cm sample was performed at Experimental Area 1 (EAR-1) with the Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC)

    Galactic Chemical Evolution of Radioactive Isotopes

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    The presence of short-lived (‚ąľMyr) radioactive isotopes in meteoritic inclusions at the time of their formation represents a unique opportunity to study the circumstances that led to the formation of the solar system. To interpret these observations, we need to calculate the evolution of radioactive-to-stable isotopic ratios in the Galaxy. We present an extension of the open-source galactic chemical evolution codes NuPyCEE and JINAPyCEE that enable the decay of radioactive isotopes in the interstellar medium to be tracked. We show how the evolution of the isotopic ratio depends on the star formation history and efficiency, star-to-gas mass ratio, and galactic outflows. Given the uncertainties in the observations used to calibrate our model, our predictions for isotopic ratios at the time of formation of the Sun are uncertain by a factor of 3.6. At that time, to recover the actual radioactive-to-stable isotopic ratios predicted by our model, one can multiply the steady-state solution (see Equation (1)) by {2.3}-0.7+3.4. However, in the cases where the radioactive isotope has a half-life longer than ‚ąľ200 Myr, or the target radioactive or stable isotopes have mass- and/or metallicity-dependent production rates, or they originate from different sources with different delay-time distributions, or the reference isotope is radioactive, our codes should be used for more accurate solutions. Our preliminary calculations confirm the dichotomy between radioactive nuclei in the early solar system with r- and s-process origin, and that 55Mn and 60Fe can be explained by galactic chemical evolution, while 26Al cannot
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