12,727 research outputs found

    Quantum robustness and phase transitions of the 3D Toric Code in a field

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    We study the robustness of 3D intrinsic topogical order under external perturbations by investigating the paradigmatic microscopic model, the 3D toric code in an external magnetic field. Exact dualities as well as variational calculations reveal a ground-state phase diagram with first and second-order quantum phase transitions. The variational approach can be applied without further approximations only for certain field directions. In the general field case, an approximative scheme based on an expansion of the variational energy in orders of the variational parameters is developed. For the breakdown of the 3D intrinsic topological order, it is found that the (im-)mobility of the quasiparticle excitations is crucial in contrast to their fractional statistics

    Memristive switching of MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions

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    Here we demonstrate that both, tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) and resistive switching (RS), can be observed simultaneously in nano-scale magnetic tunnel junctions. The devices show bipolar RS of 6 % and TMR ratios of about 100 %. For each magnetic state, multiple resistive sates are created depending on the bias history which provides a method for multi-bit data storage and logic. The electronic transport measurements are discussed in the framework of a memristive system. Differently prepared MgO barriers are compared to gain insight into the switching mechanism

    Development of new techniques for the characterization of crystals and their growth solutions: Center director's discretionary fund

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    The solubility measurement system and the laser scattering microscope system were designed, built, and utilized for the study of crystal growth solutions and crystal characterization measurements. Solubility measurements and crystal defect maps were made with this equipment for a number of new materials. In some cases, where there have been published solubility data (i.e., TGS), more accurate measurements were made and discrepancies in the published data were resolved. The design of these instruments is presented along with a description of their use and some typical data generated using them

    Viscous Dark Energy Models with Variable G and Lambda

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    We consider a cosmological model with bulk viscosity (η\eta) and variable cosmological (Λρα,α=const.(\Lambda\propto \rho^{-\alpha}, \alpha=\rm const.) and gravitational (GG) constants. The model exhibits many interesting cosmological features. Inflation proceeds du to the presence of bulk viscosity and dark energy without requiring the equation of state p=ρp=-\rho. During the inflationary era the energy density (ρ\rho) does not remain constant, as in the de-Sitter type. Moreover, the cosmological and gravitational constants increase exponentially with time, whereas the energy density and viscosity decrease exponentially with time. The rate of mass creation during inflation is found to be very huge suggesting that all matter in the universe was created during inflation.Comment: 6 Latex page

    Crystal growth in a microgravity environment

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    Gravitational phenomena, including convection, sedimentation, and interactions of materials with their containers all affect the crystal growth process. If they are not taken into consideration they can have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of crystals produced. As a practical matter, convection, and sedimentation can be completely eliminated only under conditions of low gravity attained during orbital flight. There is, then, an advantage to effecting crystallization in space. In the absence of convection in a microgravity environment cooling proceeds by thermal diffusion from the walls to the center of the solution chamber. This renders control of nucleation difficult. Accordingly, there is a need for a new improved nucleation process in space. Crystals are nucleated by creating a small localized region of high relative supersaturation in a host solution at a lower degree of supersaturation

    Method and apparatus for shaping and enhancing acoustical levitation forces

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    A method and apparatus for enhancing and shaping acoustical levitation forces in a single-axis acoustic resonance system wherein specially shaped drivers and reflectors are utilized to enhance to levitation force and better contain fluid substance by means of field shaping is described

    Concepts for microgravity experiments utilizing gloveboxes

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    The need for glovebox facilities on spacecraft in which microgravity materials processing experiments are performed is discussed. At present such facilities are being designed, and some of their capabilities are briefly described. A list of experiment concepts which would require or benefit from such facilities is presented
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