11,141 research outputs found

### Trade and the Competitiveness Agenda

The global economic crisis has forced a major rethinking of the respective roles of governments and markets in the processes of trade and growth. Indeed, industrial policy seems to be back in fashion—or, at least, talking about it is. But a renewed “activism” by government in the trade and growth agenda need not mean a return to old-style policies of import substitution and “picking winners.” Instead, it may mean a stronger focus on competitiveness by unlocking the constraints to private sector–led growth. This note discusses the renewed role of government in trade and growth policy from the competitiveness angle, and it suggests some priorities for the new competitiveness agenda.trade, competitiveness, financial crisis, growth, industrial policy, import substitution, picking winners, trade policy, exports, imports

### Distinguishing cause from effect - many deficits associated with developmental dyslexia may be a consequence of reduced and suboptimal reading experience

The cause of developmental dyslexia is still unknown despite decades of intense research. Many causal explanations have been proposed, based on the range of impairments displayed by affected individuals. Here we draw attention to the fact that many of these impairments are also shown by illiterate individuals who have not received any or very little reading instruction. We suggest that this fact may not be coincidental and that the performance differences of both illiterates and individuals with dyslexia compared to literate controls are, to a substantial extent, secondary consequences of either reduced or suboptimal reading experience or a combination of both. The search for the primary causes of reading impairments will make progress if the consequences of quantitative and qualitative differences in reading experience are better taken into account and not mistaken for the causes of reading disorders. We close by providing four recommendations for future research

### Analyzing trade competitiveness : a diagnostics approach

Trade has proven to be a powerful engine of growth worldwide. But not all countries have benefited equally. Despite much effort to use trade policy to catalyze exports, many developing countries have failed to achieve successful, sustainable export and economic growth. Even with the benefit of preferential market access, many developing country exporters face a broad and diverse set of constraints that limit their potential to compete in export markets. This paper discusses the concept of"competitiveness"with respect to trade and the various dimensions on which trade competitiveness might be assessed. It argues there is a need for a framework by which trade competitiveness can be assessed in a systematic way. Inspired by the"growth diagnostics"approach, it outlines a possible framework for assessing factors that facilitate or constrain trade competitiveness.Economic Theory&Research,Environmental Economics&Policies,Markets and Market Access,E-Business,Currencies and Exchange Rates

### Vector Balancing in Lebesgue Spaces

A tantalizing conjecture in discrete mathematics is the one of Koml\'os,
suggesting that for any vectors $\mathbf{a}_1,\ldots,\mathbf{a}_n \in B_2^m$
there exist signs $x_1, \dots, x_n \in \{ -1,1\}$ so that $\|\sum_{i=1}^n
x_i\mathbf{a}_i\|_\infty \le O(1)$. It is a natural extension to ask what
$\ell_q$-norm bound to expect for $\mathbf{a}_1,\ldots,\mathbf{a}_n \in B_p^m$.
We prove that, for $2 \le p \le q \le \infty$, such vectors admit fractional
colorings $x_1, \dots, x_n \in [-1,1]$ with a linear number of $\pm 1$
coordinates so that $\|\sum_{i=1}^n x_i\mathbf{a}_i\|_q \leq
O(\sqrt{\min(p,\log(2m/n))}) \cdot n^{1/2-1/p+ 1/q}$, and that one can obtain a
full coloring at the expense of another factor of $\frac{1}{1/2 - 1/p + 1/q}$.
In particular, for $p \in (2,3]$ we can indeed find signs $\mathbf{x} \in \{
-1,1\}^n$ with $\|\sum_{i=1}^n x_i\mathbf{a}_i\|_\infty \le O(n^{1/2-1/p} \cdot
\frac{1}{p-2})$. Our result generalizes Spencer's theorem, for which $p = q =
\infty$, and is tight for $m = n$.
Additionally, we prove that for any fixed constant $\delta>0$, in a centrally
symmetric body $K \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ with measure at least $e^{-\delta n}$
one can find such a fractional coloring in polynomial time. Previously this was
known only for a small enough constant -- indeed in this regime classical
nonconstructive arguments do not apply and partial colorings of the form
$\mathbf{x} \in \{ -1,0,1\}^n$ do not necessarily exist.Comment: 19 page

### Building an Organization to Last: Reflections and Lessons Learned From SeaChange

Shares an important case study of best practices of grantmaking and organizational effectiveness. Contains lessons about leadership, governance, management and accountability

### e-Philanthropy v2.001: From Entrepreneurial Adventure to an Online Community

Looks at interactive online services for philanthropy and volunteerism. Identifies, describes and anticipates the changing and maturing structure of Internet-facilitated information and services that support the various dimensions of the social sector

### Unleashing New Resources and Entrepreneurship for the Common Good: A Scan, Synthesis, and Scenario for Action

Presents an overview of changes and corresponding opportunities related to how philanthropy and social change organizations and leaders are integrating market concepts into their work, value sets, and organizational structures

### Radiative corrections for few-nucleon systems

We use a combination of effective field theory and the renormalization group
to determine the impact of radiative corrections on the nucleon-nucleon
potential. In order to do so, we present a modified version of pionless
effective field theory inspired by earlier work in nonrelativistic quantum
electrodynamics. The renormalization group analysis of corrections in the
deuteron indicate that radiative corrections generate $1-2\%$ of the binding
energy. This work serves as an important starting point for the study of
radiative corrections in few-body systems relevant for precision tests of the
Standard Model.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

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