589 research outputs found

    Have You Ever Loved a Woman?

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    Death of a Tree

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    Could This Train Make It Through: The Law and Strategy of the Gold Train Case

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    In 1944-45, the Nazis seized personal belongings of the Hungarian Jewish population and dispatched some of the most valuable of them on a train. The United States Army took control of this Gold Train and gave reassurances that it would keep the valuables safe. However, the items were plundered by individual soldiers, including officers, and diverted to various uses. After decades of dormancy, a Presidential Commission exposed the facts, but the government still did not right the wrong — until there was litigation. The Gold Train case (Rosner v. United States) represents a measure of justice for the victimized community of Hungarian Jewish Holocaust survivors. This case is one of the most successful human rights class actions ever brought against the United States. It teaches important lessons regarding future human rights cases, especially those against the United States. These lessons concern both the legal doctrines in such cases and strategic questions about how to mobilize the public\u27s sympathy for human rights victims injured by the United States abroad. Survivors and descendants of Hungarian Jews brought this class action against the United States to seek restitution because their valuables were seized by the Nazis in 1945 and subsequently loaded on a train which came into United States Army control. The valuables were disposed of by grants to international organizations, sale, waste, and looting, rather than being returned to the owners. Strategically, Hungarian Jewry, as Holocaust-era victims, had the sympathy of American Jewry, a group whose voice would help bring about a just settlement. The Rosner settlement obliged the United States to devote $25 million to the needs of this class of Holocaust victims. There is much more to the Gold Train case than meets the eye, and the litigation took many unanticipated turns over five years of preparation, research, litigation, negotiation, and settlement. Doctrinally and strategically the route to obtaining justice was anything but simple. The underlying events occurred in far flung locales — Hungary, Austria, France, London, New York, Budapest, Israel, and Washington, DC, among others over 55 years before the case was brought. Both factual and legal questions posed major challenges

    Could This Train Make It Through: The Law and Strategy of the Gold Train Case

    Get PDF
    In 1944-45, the Nazis seized personal belongings of the Hungarian Jewish population and dispatched some of the most valuable of them on a train. The United States Army took control of this Gold Train and gave reassurances that it would keep the valuables safe. However, the items were plundered by individual soldiers, including officers, and diverted to various uses. After decades of dormancy, a Presidential Commission exposed the facts, but the government still did not right the wrong — until there was litigation. The Gold Train case (Rosner v. United States) represents a measure of justice for the victimized community of Hungarian Jewish Holocaust survivors. This case is one of the most successful human rights class actions ever brought against the United States. It teaches important lessons regarding future human rights cases, especially those against the United States. These lessons concern both the legal doctrines in such cases and strategic questions about how to mobilize the public\u27s sympathy for human rights victims injured by the United States abroad. Survivors and descendants of Hungarian Jews brought this class action against the United States to seek restitution because their valuables were seized by the Nazis in 1945 and subsequently loaded on a train which came into United States Army control. The valuables were disposed of by grants to international organizations, sale, waste, and looting, rather than being returned to the owners. Strategically, Hungarian Jewry, as Holocaust-era victims, had the sympathy of American Jewry, a group whose voice would help bring about a just settlement. The Rosner settlement obliged the United States to devote $25 million to the needs of this class of Holocaust victims. There is much more to the Gold Train case than meets the eye, and the litigation took many unanticipated turns over five years of preparation, research, litigation, negotiation, and settlement. Doctrinally and strategically the route to obtaining justice was anything but simple. The underlying events occurred in far flung locales — Hungary, Austria, France, London, New York, Budapest, Israel, and Washington, DC, among others over 55 years before the case was brought. Both factual and legal questions posed major challenges

    Neurochemical compartmentalization within the pigeon basal ganglia

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    The goals of this study were to use multiple informative markers to define and characterize the neurochemically distinct compartments of the pigeon basal ganglia, especially striatum and accumbens. To this end, we used antibodies against 12 different neuropeptides, calcium-binding proteins or neurotransmitter-related enzymes that are enriched in the basal ganglia. Our results clarify boundaries between previously described basal ganglia subdivisions in birds, and reveal considerable novel heterogeneity within these previously described subdivisions. Sixteen regions were identified that each displayed a unique neurochemical organization. Four compartments were identified within the dorsal striatal region. The neurochemical characteristics support previous comparisons to part of the central extended amygdala, somatomotor striatum, and associational striatum of mammals, respectively. The medialmost part of the medial striatum, however, has several unique features, including prominent pallidal-like woolly fibers and thus may be a region unique to birds. Four neurochemically distinct regions were identified within the pigeon ventral striatum: the accumbens, paratubercular striatum, ventrocaudal striatum, and the ventral area of the lateral part of the medial striatum that is located adjacent to these regions. The pigeon accumbens is neurochemically similar to the mammalian rostral accumbens. The pigeon paratubercular and ventrocaudal striatal regions are similar to the mammalian accumbens shell. The ventral portions of the medial and lateral parts of the medial striatum, which are located adjacent to accumbens shell-like areas, have neurochemical characteristics as well as previously reported limbic connections that are comparable to the accumbens core. Comparisons to neurochemically identified compartments in reptiles, mammals, and amphibians indicate that, although most of the basic compartments of the basal ganglia were highly conserved during tetrapod evolution, uniquely avian compartments may exist as well

    Resolving the Topological Classification of Bismuth with Topological Defects

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    Bulk boundary correspondence in topological materials allows to study their bulk topology through the investigation of their topological boundary modes. However, for classes that share similar boundary phenomenology, the growing diversity of topological phases may lead to ambiguity in the topological classification of materials. Such is the current status of bulk bismuth. While some theoretical models indicate that bismuth possesses a trivial topological nature, other theoretical and experimental studies suggest non-trivial topological classifications such as a strong or a higher order topological insulator, both of which hosts helical modes on their boundaries. Here we use a novel approach to resolve the topological classification of bismuth by spectroscopically mapping the response of its boundary modes to a topological defect in the form of a screw dislocation (SD). We find that the edge mode extends over a wide energy range, and withstands crystallographic irregularities, without showing any signs of backscattering. It seems to bind to the bulk SD, as expected for a topological insulator (TI) with non-vanishing weak indices. We argue that the small scale of the bulk energy gap, at the time reversal symmetric momentum LL, positions bismuth within the critical region of a topological phase transition to a strong TI with non-vanishing weak indices. We show that the observed boundary modes are approximately helical already on the Z2\mathbb{Z}_2 trivial side of the topological phase transition. This work opens the door for further possibilities to examine the response of topological phases to crystallographic topological defects, and to uniquely explore their associated bulk boundary phenomena

    Hot Electrons Regain Coherence in Semiconducting Nanowires

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    The higher the energy of a particle is above equilibrium the faster it relaxes due to the growing phase-space of available electronic states it can interact with. In the relaxation process phase coherence is lost, thus limiting high energy quantum control and manipulation. In one-dimensional systems high relaxation rates are expected to destabilize electronic quasiparticles. We show here that the decoherence induced by relaxation of hot electrons in one-dimensional semiconducting nanowires evolves non-monotonically with energy such that above a certain threshold hot-electrons regain stability with increasing energy. We directly observe this phenomenon by visualizing for the first time the interference patterns of the quasi-one-dimensional electrons using scanning tunneling microscopy. We visualize both the phase coherence length of the one-dimensional electrons, as well as their phase coherence time, captured by crystallographic Fabry-Perot resonators. A remarkable agreement with a theoretical model reveals that the non-monotonic behavior is driven by the unique manner in which one dimensional hot-electrons interact with the cold electrons occupying the Fermi-sea. This newly discovered relaxation profile suggests a high-energy regime for operating quantum applications that necessitate extended coherence or long thermalization times, and may stabilize electronic quasiparticles in one dimension
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