596 research outputs found

    The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems

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    The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods

    Drug-Induced Exposure of Schistosoma mansoni Antigens SmCD59a and SmKK7

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    BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a serious health problem especially in developing countries and affects more than 243 million people. Only few anthelmintic drugs are available up to now. A major obstacle for drug treatment is the different developmental stages and the varying host compartments during worm development. Anthelmintic drugs have been tested mainly on adult schistosomes or freshly transformed cercariae. Knowledge concerning the larval stages is lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we used in vitro-grown schistosomula (aged between 2 to 14 days) to investigate drug effects of the three anthelmintics praziquantel, artemether, and oxamniquine. Further, we analyzed the antibody accessibility of two exemplary schistosome antigens SmCD59a and SmKK7, before and after drug treatment. Our results demonstrated that praziquantel applied at a concentration of 1 μM inhibited development of all life stages. Application of 10 μM praziquantel led to dramatic morphological changes of all schistosomula. Artemether at 1 and 10 μM had differential effects depending on whether it was applied to 2-day as compared to 7- and 14-day schistosomula. While 2-day schistosomula were not killed but inhibited from further development, severe morphological damage was seen in 7- and 14-day schistosomula. Oxamniquine (1 and 10 μM) led to severe morphological impairment in all life stages. Analyzing the accessibility of the antigens SmCD59a and SmKK7 before drug treatment showed no antibody binding on living intact schistosomula. However, when schistosomula were treated with anthelmintics, both antigens became exposed on the larvae. Oxamniquine turned out to be most effective in promoting antibody binding to all schistosomula stages. CONCLUSION: This study has revealed marked differences in anthelmintic drug effects against larvae. Drug treatment increases surface antigen presentation and renders larvae accessible to antibody attack

    Search for long-lived particles produced in association with a Z boson in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} =13 TeV

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    A search for long-lived particles (LLPs) produced in association with a Z boson is presented. The study is performed using data from proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded by the CMS experiment during 2016–2018, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 117 fb−1. The LLPs are assumed to decay to a pair of standard model quarks that are identified as displaced jets within the CMS tracker system. Triggers and selections based on Z boson decays to electron or muon pairs improve the sensitivity to light LLPs (down to 15 GeV). This search provides sensitivity to beyond the standard model scenarios which predict LLPs produced in association with a Z boson. In particular, the results are interpreted in the context of exotic decays of the Higgs boson to a pair of scalar LLPs (H → SS). The Higgs boson decay branching fraction is constrained to values less than 6% for proper decay lengths of 10–100 mm and for LLP masses between 40 and 55 GeV. In the case of low-mass (≈ 15 GeV) scalar particles that subsequently decay to a pair of b quarks, the search is sensitive to branching fractions (H → SS) < 20% for proper decay lengths of 10–50 mm. The use of associated production with a Z boson increases the sensitivity to low-mass LLPs of this analysis with respect to gluon fusion searches. In the case of 15 GeV scalar LLPs, the improvement corresponds to a factor of 2 at a proper decay length of 30 mm

    Observation of the Bc+B_c^+ Meson in Pb-Pb and pp Collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02 TeV and Measurement of its Nuclear Modification Factor

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    The B+c meson is observed for the first time in heavy ion collisions. Data from the CMS detector are used to study the production of the B+c meson in lead-lead (Pb-Pb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of √sNN=5.02  TeV, via the B+c→(J/ψ→μ+μ−)μ+νμ decay. The B+c nuclear modification factor, derived from the Pb-Pb–to–pp ratio of production cross sections, is measured in two bins of the trimuon transverse momentum and of the Pb-Pb collision centrality. The B+c meson is shown to be less suppressed than quarkonia and most of the open heavy-flavor mesons, suggesting that effects of the hot and dense nuclear matter created in heavy ion collisions contribute to its production. This measurement sets forth a promising new probe of the interplay of suppression and enhancement mechanisms in the production of heavy-flavor mesons in the quark-gluon plasma

    Response of a CMS HGCAL silicon-pad electromagnetic calorimeter prototype to 20300 GeV positrons

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid collaboration is designing a new high-granularity endcap calorimeter, HGCAL, to be installed later this decade. As part of this development work, a prototype system was built, with an electromagnetic section consisting of 14 double-sided structures, providing 28 sampling layers. Each sampling layer has an hexagonal module, where a multipad large-area silicon sensor is glued between an electronics circuit board and a metal baseplate. The sensor pads of approximately 1.1 cm2 are wire-bonded to the circuit board and are readout by custom integrated circuits. The prototype was extensively tested with beams at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron in 2018. Based on the data collected with beams of positrons, with energies ranging from 20 to 300 GeV, measurements of the energy resolution and linearity, the position and angular resolutions, and the shower shapes are presented and compared to a detailed Geant4 simulation

    Search for heavy resonances decaying to ZZ or ZW and axion-like particles mediating nonresonant ZZ or ZH production at s\sqrt{s} =13 TeV

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    A search has been performed for heavy resonances decaying to ZZ or ZW and for axion-like particles (ALPs) mediating nonresonant ZZ or ZH production, in final states with two charged leptons (ℓ = e, μ) produced by the decay of a Z boson, and two quarks produced by the decay of a Z, W, or Higgs boson H. The analysis is sensitive to resonances with masses in the range 450 to 2000 GeV. Two categories are defined corresponding to the merged or resolved reconstruction of the hadronically decaying boson. The search is based on data collected during 2016–2018 by the CMS experiment at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb−1. No significant excess is observed in the data above the standard model background expectation. Upper limits on the production cross section of heavy, narrow spin-2 and spin-1 resonances are derived as functions of the resonance mass, and exclusion limits on the production of bulk graviton particles and W′ bosons are calculated in the framework of the warped extra dimensions and heavy vector triplet models, respectively. In addition, upper limits on the ALP-mediated diboson production cross section and ALP couplings to standard model particles are obtained in the framework of linear and chiral effective field theories. These are the first limits on nonresonant ALP-mediated ZZ and ZH production obtained by the LHC experiments

    Precision measurement of the W boson decay branching fractions in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} =13 TeV

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    The leptonic and inclusive hadronic decay branching fractions of the W boson are measured using proton-proton collision data collected at √s=13  TeV by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb−1. Events characterized by the production of one or two W bosons are selected and categorized based on the multiplicity and flavor of reconstructed leptons, the number of jets, and the number of jets identified as originating from the hadronization of b quarks. A binned maximum likelihood estimate of the W boson branching fractions is performed simultaneously in each event category. The measured branching fractions of the W boson decaying into electron, muon, and tau lepton final states are (10.83±0.10)%, (10.94±0.08)%, and (10.77±0.21)%, respectively, consistent with lepton flavor universality for the weak interaction. The average leptonic and inclusive hadronic decay branching fractions are estimated to be (10.89±0.08)% and (67.32±0.23)%, respectively. Based on the hadronic branching fraction, three standard model quantities are subsequently derived: the sum of squared elements in the first two rows of the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM) matrix ∑ij|Vij|2=1.984±0.021, the CKM element |Vcs|=0.967±0.011, and the strong coupling constant at the W boson mass scale, αS(m2W)=0.095±0.033

    Measurement of double-parton scattering in inclusive production of four jets with low transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} =13 TeV

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    A measurement of inclusive four-jet production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is presented. The transverse momenta of jets within |η| < 4.7 are required to exceed 35, 30, 25, and 20 GeV for the first-, second-, third-, and fourth-leading jet, respectively. Differential cross sections are measured as functions of the jet transverse momentum, jet pseudorapidity, and several other observables that describe the angular correlations between the jets. The measured distributions show sensitivity to different aspects of the underlying event, parton shower modeling, and matrix element calculations. In particular, the interplay between angular correlations caused by parton shower and double-parton scattering contributions is shown to be important. The double-parton scattering contribution is extracted by means of a template fit to the data, using distributions for single-parton scattering obtained from Monte Carlo event generators and a double-parton scattering distribution constructed from inclusive single-jet events in data. The effective double-parton scattering cross section is calculated and discussed in view of previous measurements and of its dependence on the models used to describe the single- parton scattering background
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