4,160 research outputs found

    Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

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    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented

    Closed Strings in Misner Space: Stringy Fuzziness with a Twist

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    Misner space, also known as the Lorentzian orbifold R1,1/boostR^{1,1}/boost, is the simplest tree-level solution of string theory with a cosmological singularity. We compute tree-level scattering amplitudes involving twisted states, using operator and current algebra techniques. We find that, due to zero-point quantum fluctuations of the excited modes, twisted strings with a large winding number ww are fuzzy on a scale logw\sqrt{\log w}, which can be much larger than the string scale. Wave functions are smeared by an operator exp(Δ(ν)+)\exp(\Delta(\nu) \partial_+ \partial_-) reminiscent of the Moyal-product of non-commutative geometry, which, since Δ(ν)\Delta(\nu) is real, modulates the amplitude rather than the phase of the wave function, and is purely gravitational in its origin. We compute the scattering amplitude of two twisted states and one tachyon or graviton, and find a finite result. The scattering amplitude of two twisted and two untwisted states is found to diverge, due to the propagation of intermediate winding strings with vanishing boost momentum. The scattering amplitude of three twisted fields is computed by analytic continuation from three-point amplitudes of states with non-zero p+p^+ in the Nappi-Witten plane wave, and the non-locality of the three-point vertex is found to diverge for certain kinematical configurations. Our results for the three-point amplitudes allow in principle to compute, to leading order, the back-reaction on the metric due to a condensation of coherent winding strings.Comment: 29 pages, Latex2e, uses JHEP3.cls; v3: minor corrections, final version to appear in JCA

    Estimating sunspot number

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    An empirical method is developed to predict certain parameters of future solar activity cycles. Sunspot cycle statistics are examined, and curve fitting and linear regression analysis techniques are utilized

    Progression of myopathology in Kearns-Sayre syndrome

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    We report on the progression of myopathology by comparing two biopsies from a patient with a Kearns-Sayre-Syndrome. The first biopsy was taken in 1979 and showed 10% ragged-red fibers. Myopathic changes were slight including internal nuclei and fiber splitting in 10% of the fibers. Electron microscopy revealed typical mitochondrial abnormalities with regard to number and shape. In 1989 a second biopsy was performed for an extended analysis of mitochondrial DNA. This time less than 5% of all fibers were ragged-red. Severe myopathic changes could be detected which so far has rarely been reported in mitochondrial cytopathy

    Differences in Self-Reported Health in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III)

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    Objective: To assess self-reported health status (SRHS) in two cohorts of participants with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) and examine the extent that differences in SRHS are due to study design. Method: We used data from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES-III; population-based national survey) and the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI; prospective cohort study). Inclusion criteria for this analysis were age 60–79 and presence of radiographic knee OA. SRHS, elicited as a five-item domain (excellent, very good, good, fair, poor), was analyzed by dichotomizing the general health status measure as ‘‘fair/poor’ ’ versus all other states. We estimated the proportion of participants in fair/poor health from each study. Propensity score methodology was used to adjust for the differences in sampling strategies between the two studies. Results: Thirty-four percent (N = 1,608) of OAI and 29 % (N = 756) of NHANES-III participants satisfied inclusion criteria. The proportion in fair/poor health was higher in NHANES-III (28%) than in OAI (5%). After adjusting for the propensity score, the proportion in fair/poor health was four times higher in NHANES-III than in OAI. Conclusion: SRHS was substantially better in OAI than in NHANES-III. Self-selection bias may contribute to overestimation o

    Film calibration for the Skylab/ATM S-056 X-ray telescope

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    The sensitometry and film calibration effort for the Skylab/ATM S-056 X-ray telescope is summarized. The apparatus and procedures used are described together with the two types of flight film used, Kodak SO-212 and SO-242. The sensitometry and processing of the flight film are discussed, and the results are presented in the form of the characteristic curves and related data. The use of copy films is also discussed

    Exploring polymer/nanoparticle hybrid solar cells in tandem architecture

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    Tandem solar cells offer the possibility to significantly enhance solar cell performance through harvesting a broader part of the solar spectrum by using complementary absorbing materials. We report on tandem solar cells, with at least one polymer/nanoparticle hybrid layer as absorber material, in which the nanoparticles are prepared in situ by thermal decomposition of metal xanthates directly in the polymer matrix. In a first series, we investigated a hybrid-organic tandem solar cell, with a hybrid solar cell consisting of the silafluorene containing low band gap polymer PSiF-DBT and copper indium sulphide (CIS) nanoparticles as the bottom cell, and a low band gap polymer (PTB7)/fullerene derivative (PC61BM) organic solar cell as the top cell in order to study different recombination layers. Tandem devices with open circuit voltages nearly reaching the sum of the individual cells have been realised. The short circuit current is equal to the value of the hybrid single cell and a fill factor above 50% is obtained, leading to power conversion efficiencies of about 4.1%. Furthermore, the first results on hybrid-hybrid tandem solar cells consisting of two PSiF-DBT/CIS solar cells are presented. Although the preparation of these double hybrid devices is challenging because of the necessity of two thermal annealing steps, the resulting multilayer stack reveals smooth and homogeneous layers with sharp interfaces. The first working hybrid-hybrid tandem solar cells still exhibited 81% of the sum of the open circuit voltages of the single junction solar cells. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry

    Bioengineering Dermo-Epidermal Skin Grafts with Blood and Lymphatic Capillaries

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    The first bioengineered, autologous, dermo-epidermal skin grafts are presently undergoing clinical trials; hence, it is reasonable to envisage the next clinical step at the forefront of plastic and burn surgery, which is the generation of autologous skin grafts that contain vascular plexuses, preformed in vitro. As the importance of the blood, and particularly the lymphatic vascular system, is increasingly recognized, it is attractive to engineer both human blood and lymphatic vessels in one tissue or organ graft. We show here that functional lymphatic capillaries can be generated using three-dimensional hydrogels. Like normal lymphatics, these capillaries branch, form lumen, and take up fluid in vitro and in vivo after transplantation onto immunocompromised rodents. Formation of lymphatic capillaries could be modulated by both lymphangiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic stimuli, demonstrating the potential usefulness of this system for in vitro testing. Blood and lymphatic endothelial cells never intermixed during vessel development, nor did blood and lymphatic capillaries anastomose under the described circumstances. After transplantation of the engineered grafts, the human lymphatic capillaries anastomosed to the nude rat's lymphatic plexus and supported fluid drainage. Successful preclinical results suggest that these skin grafts could be applied on patients suffering from severe skin defects

    Prelude to Cycle 23: The Case for a Fast-Rising, Large Amplitude Cycle

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    For the common data-available interval of cycles 12 to 22, we show that annual averages of sunspot number for minimum years (R(min)) and maximum years (R(max)) and of the minimum value of the aa geomagnetic index in the vicinity of sunspot minimum (aa(min)) are consistent with the notion that each has embedded within its respective record a long-term, linear, secular increase. Extrapolating each of these fits to cycle 23, we infer that it will have R(min) = 12.7 +/- 5.7, R(max) = 176.7 +/- 61.8, and aa(min) = 21.0 +/- 5.0 (at the 95-percent level of confidence), suggesting that cycle 23 will have R(min) greater than 7.0, R(max) greater than 114.9, and aa(min) greater than 16.0 (at the 97.5-percent level of confidence). Such values imply that cycle 23 will be larger than average in size and, consequently (by the Waidmeier effect), will be a fast riser. We also infer from the R(max) and aa(min) records the existence of an even- odd cycle effect, one in which the odd-following cycle is numerically larger in value than the even-leading cycle. For cycle 23, the even-odd cycle effect suggests that R(max) greater than 157.6 and aa(min) greater than 19.0, values that were recorded for cycle 22, the even-leading cycle of the current even-odd cycle pair (cycles 22 and 23). For 1995, the annual average of the aa index measured about 22, while for sunspot number, it was about 18. Because aa(min) usually lags R(min) by 1 year (true for 8 of 11 cycles) and 1996 seems destined to be the year of R(min) for cycle 23, it may be that aa(min) will occur in 1997, although it could occur in 1996 in conjunction with R(min) (true for 3 of 11 cycles). Because of this ambiguity in determining aa(min), no formal prediction based on the correlation of R(max) against aa(min), having r = 0.90, or of R(max) against the combined effects of R(min) and aa(min)-the bivariate technique-having r = 0.99, is possible until 1997, at the earliest
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