273 research outputs found

    Psychosis Polyrisk Score (PPS) for the Detection of Individuals At-Risk and the Prediction of Their Outcomes

    Get PDF
    Primary prevention in individuals at Clinical High Risk for psychosis (CHR-P) can ameliorate the course of psychotic disorders. Further advancements of knowledge have been slowed by the standstill of the field, which is mostly attributed to its epidemiological weakness. The latter, in turn, underlies the limited identification power of at-risk individuals and the relatively modest ability of CHR-P interviews to rule-in a state of risk for psychosis. In the first part, this perspective review discusses these limitations and traces a new approach to overcome them. Theoretical concepts to support a Psychosis Polyrisk Score (PPS) integrating genetic and non-genetic risk and protective factors for psychosis are presented. The PPS hinges on recent findings indicating that risk enrichment in CHR-P samples is accounted for by the accumulation of non-genetic factors such as: parental and sociodemographic risk factors, perinatal risk factors, later risk factors, and antecedents. In the second part of this perspective review we present a prototype of a PPS encompassing core predictors beyond genetics. The PPS prototype may be piloted in the next generation of CHR-P research and combined with genetic information to refine the detection of individuals at-risk of psychosis and the prediction of their outcomes, and ultimately advance clinical research in this field

    Autism phenotype versus registered diagnosis in Swedish children: prevalence trends over 10 years in general population samples

    Get PDF
    Objective: To compare the annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype and of registered diagnoses for autism spectrum disorder during a 10 year period in children. Design: Population based study. Setting: Child and Adolescent Twin Study and national patient register, Sweden. Participants: 19 993 twins (190 with autism spectrum disorder) and all children (n=1 078 975; 4620 with autism spectrum disorder) born in Sweden over a 10 year period from 1993 to 2002. Main outcome measures: Annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype (that is, symptoms on which the diagnostic criteria are based) assessed by a validated parental telephone interview (the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory), and annual prevalence of reported diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register. Results: The annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype was stable during the 10 year period (P=0.87 for linear time trend). In contrast, there was a monotonic significant increase in prevalence of registered diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register (P<0.001 for linear trend). Conclusions: The prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype has remained stable in children in Sweden while the official prevalence for registered, clinically diagnosed, autism spectrum disorder has increased substantially. This suggests that administrative changes, affecting the registered prevalence, rather than secular factors affecting the pathogenesis, are important for the increase in reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder

    Linked patterns of biological and environmental covariation with brain structure in adolescence : a population-based longitudinal study

    Get PDF
    Adolescence is a period of major brain reorganization shaped by biologically timed and by environmental factors. We sought to discover linked patterns of covariation between brain structural development and a wide array of these factors by leveraging data from the IMAGEN study, a longitudinal population-based cohort of adolescents. Brain structural measures and a comprehensive array of non-imaging features (relating to demographic, anthropometric, and psychosocial characteristics) were available on 1476 IMAGEN participants aged 14 years and from a subsample reassessed at age 19 years (n = 714). We applied sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCA) to the cross-sectional and longitudinal data to extract modes with maximum covariation between neuroimaging and non-imaging measures. Separate sCCAs for cortical thickness, cortical surface area and subcortical volumes confirmed that each imaging phenotype was correlated with non-imaging features (sCCA r range: 0.30-0.65, all P-FDR <0.001). Total intracranial volume and global measures of cortical thickness and surface area had the highest canonical cross-loadings (|rho| = 0.31-0.61). Age, physical growth and sex had the highest association with adolescent brain structure (|rho| = 0.24-0.62); at baseline, further significant positive associations were noted for cognitive measures while negative associations were observed at both time points for prenatal parental smoking, life events, and negative affect and substance use in youth (|rho| = 0.10-0.23). Sex, physical growth and age are the dominant influences on adolescent brain development. We highlight the persistent negative influences of prenatal parental smoking and youth substance use as they are modifiable and of relevance for public health initiatives.Peer reviewe

    The course and correlates of everyday functioning in schizophrenia

    Get PDF
    AbstractPreviously institutionalized older patients with schizophrenia show changes in cognitive and functional capacity over time. This study examined changes in real-world functioning in a sample of people with schizophrenia who varied in their history of long-term institutionalization and related changes in real world functioning to changes in cognition and functional capacity over the follow-up period.Older patients with schizophrenia (n=111) were examined with assessments of cognitive functioning, functional capacity, clinical symptoms, and everyday functioning. They were then followed up to 45 months and examined up to two times. Mixed-model regression was used to examine changes in real-world functioning in social, everyday living, and vocational domains over the follow-up period and identify potential predictors of change.Everyday functioning worsened over time in all three domains. Although length of longest hospitalization predicted worsening, this influence was eliminated when the course of functional capacity was used to predict the course of everyday functioning. For both vocational and everyday living domains, as well as the composite score on functional status, worsening in performance based measures of everyday functioning and social competence predicted worsening in real world functioning. Changes in negative symptoms further predicted worsening in the everyday living domain.Worsening in everyday functioning is found in people with schizophrenia and those with a history of greater chronicity and severity of illness seem more affected. These influences seem to be expressed through worsening in the ability to perform everyday functional skills. Potential causes of these changes and implications for reducing these impairments are discussed

    Inherited risk for autism through maternal and paternal lineage

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly familial, with a positively skewed male-to-female ratio that is purported to arise from the so-called female protective effect. A serious implication of a female protective effect is that familial ASD liability would be expected to aggregate asymptomatically in sisters of affected probands, who would incur elevated rates of ASD among their offspring. Currently, there exist no data on second-generation recurrence rates among families affected by ASD. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Swedish National Patient Register and the Multi-Generation Register for a cohort of children born between 2003 and 2012. ASD was ascertained in both the child and parental generations. RESULTS: Among 847,732 children, 13,103 (1.55%) children in the cohort were diagnosed with ASD. Among their maternal/paternal aunts and uncles, 1744 (0.24%) and 1374 (0.18%) were diagnosed with ASD, respectively. Offspring of mothers with a sibling(s) diagnosed with ASD had higher rates of ASD than the general population (relative risk, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 2.52-3.64), but not more than would be predicted for second-degree relatives within a generation, and only slightly more than was observed for fathers with siblings with ASD (relative risk, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.67). Models adjusting for temporal trends and for psychiatric history in the parental generation did not alter the results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings establish a robust general estimate of ASD transmission risk for siblings of individuals affected by ASD, the first ever reported. Our findings do not suggest female protective factors as the principal mechanism underlying the male sex bias in ASD

    Gestational age and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in Sweden, Finland, and Norway: A cohort study

    Get PDF
    Introduction The complex etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still unresolved. Preterm birth ( Author summaryWhy was this study done? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent impairments in social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors. The etiology remains unresolved. Length of gestation, including preterm birth, has been linked to risk of ASD, but reliable estimates of risks for the whole range of gestational ages (GAs) are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to provide a detailed and robust description of ASD risk across the entire range of GA while taking fetal sex and size at birth into account. What did the researchers do and find? This study was based on population-based data from national medical registries in three Nordic countries-Sweden, Finland, and Norway-and included 3,526,174 singletons born 1995 to 2015. Relative risks (RRs) of ASD by GA at birth were estimated with log binominal regression. The RR of ASD increased by each week of GA, pre- as well as postterm, from 40 to 24 weeks of gestation and from 40 to 44 weeks of gestation, independently of sex and birth weight for GA. What do these findings mean? On a population level, the risks of ASD were increased in children born either pre- or postterm, including children born close to week 40. We found that the risk of ASD increased weekly, with each week further away from 40 weeks of gestation.Peer reviewe

    Accelerated Global and Local Brain Aging Differentiate Cognitively Impaired From Cognitively Spared Patients With Schizophrenia

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the clinical and cognitive presentation of schizophrenia. The current study extends the field by examining both global and regional patterns of brain aging in schizophrenia, as inferred from brain structural data, and their association with cognitive and psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Global and local brain-age-gap-estimates (G-brainAGE and L-brainAGE) were computed using a U-Net Model from T(1)-weighted structural neuroimaging data from 84 patients (aged 16–35 years) with early-stage schizophrenia (illness duration <5 years) and 1,169 healthy individuals (aged 16–37 years). Multidomain cognitive data from the patient sample were submitted to Heterogeneity through Discriminative Analysis (HYDRA) to identify cognitive clusters. RESULTS: HYDRA classified patients into a cognitively impaired cluster (n = 69) and a cognitively spared cluster (n = 15). Compared to healthy individuals, G-brainAGE was significantly higher in the cognitively impaired cluster (+11.08 years) who also showed widespread elevation in L-brainAGE, with the highest deviance observed in frontal and temporal regions. The cognitively spared cluster showed a moderate increase in G-brainAGE (+8.94 years), and higher L-brainAGE localized in the anterior cingulate cortex. Psychotic symptom severity in both clusters showed a positive but non-significant association with G-brainAGE. DISCUSSION: Accelerated aging in schizophrenia can be detected at the early disease stages and appears more closely associated with cognitive dysfunction rather than clinical symptoms. Future studies replicating our findings in multi-site cohorts with larger numbers of participants are warranted
    corecore