14,017 research outputs found

    Two-dimensiosnal electron beam charging model for polymer films

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    A two dimensional model was developed to describe the charging of thin polymer films exposed to a uniform mon-energetic electron beam. The study was motivated by observed anomalous behavior of geosynchronous satellites which was attributed to electrical discharges associated with the differential charging of satellite surfaces of magnetospheric electrons. Electric fields both internal and external to the irradiated specimen were calculated at steady state in order to identify regions of high electrical stress. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluating the charging characteristics near the material's edge. The model was used to identify and quantify the effects of some of the experimental parameters notably: beam energy; beam angle of incidence; beam current density; material thickness; and material width. Simulations of the following situations were also conducted: positive or negative precharging over part of the surface; a central gap in the material; and a discontinuity in the material's thickness

    Barefoot running improves economy at high intensities and peak treadmill velocity

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    Aim: Barefoot running can improve running economy (RE) compared to shod running at low exercise intensities, but data is lacking for the higher intensities typical during many distance running competitions. The influence of barefoot running on the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) and peak incremental treadmill test velocity (vmax) is unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that barefoot running would improve RE, vVO2max and vmax relative to shod running. Methods: Using a balanced within-subject repeated measures design, eight male runners (aged 23.1±4.5 years, height 1.80±0.06 m, mass 73.8±11.5 kg, VO2max 4.08±0.39 L·min-1) completed a familiarization followed by one barefoot and one shod treadmill running trial, 2-14 days apart. Trial sessions consisted of a 5 minute warm-up, 5 minute rest, followed by 4×4 minute stages, at speeds corresponding to ~67, 75, 84 and 91% shod VO2max respectively, separated by a 1 minute rest. After the 4th stage treadmill speed was incremented by 0.1 km·h-1 every 15 s until participants reached volitional exhaustion. Results: RE was improved by 4.4±7.0% across intensities in the barefoot condition (P=0.040). The improvement in RE was related to removed shoe mass (r2=0.80, P=0.003) with an intercept at 0% improvement for RE at 0.520 kg total shoe mass. Both vVO2max (by 4.5±5.0%, P=0.048) and vmax (by 3.9±4.0%, P=0.030) also improved but VO2max was unchanged (p=0.747). Conclusion: Barefoot running improves RE at high exercise intensities and increases vVO2max and vmax, but further research is required to clarify the influence of very light shoe weights on RE

    Fan-spine topology formation through two-step reconnection driven by twisted flux emergence

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    We address the formation of 3D nullpoint topologies in the solar corona by combining Hinode/XRT observations of a small dynamic limb event, which occurred beside a non-erupting prominence cavity, with a 3D zero-beta MHD simulation. To this end, we model the boundary-driven kinematic emergence of a compact, intense, and uniformly twisted flux tube into a potential field arcade that overlies a weakly twisted coronal flux rope. The expansion of the emerging flux in the corona gives rise to the formation of a nullpoint at the interface of the emerging and the pre-existing fields. We unveil a two-step reconnection process at the nullpoint that eventually yields the formation of a broad 3D fan-spine configuration above the emerging bipole. The first reconnection involves emerging fields and a set of large-scale arcade field lines. It results in the launch of a torsional MHD wave that propagates along the arcades, and in the formation of a sheared loop system on one side of the emerging flux. The second reconnection occurs between these newly formed loops and remote arcade fields, and yields the formation of a second loop system on the opposite side of the emerging flux. The two loop systems collectively display an anenome pattern that is located below the fan surface. The flux that surrounds the inner spine field line of the nullpoint retains a fraction of the emerged twist, while the remaining twist is evacuated along the reconnected arcades. The nature and timing of the features which occur in the simulation do qualititatively reproduce those observed by XRT in the particular event studied in this paper. Moreover, the two-step reconnection process suggests a new consistent and generic model for the formation of anemone regions in the solar corona.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ, 11 pages and 5 figure

    Resolving the large scale spectral variability of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577: Evidence for a new emission component and absorption by cold dense matter

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    An XMM-Newton observation of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 in September 2002, when the source was in an extreme low-flux state, found a very hard X-ray spectrum at 1-10 keV with a strong soft excess below ~1 keV. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was `X-ray bright' indicated the dominant spectral variability was due to a steep power law or cool Comptonised thermal emission. Four further XMM-Newton observations, with 1H 0419-577 in intermediate flux states, now support that conclusion, while we also find the variable emission component in intermediate state difference spectra to be strongly modified by absorption in low ionisation matter. The variable `soft excess' then appears to be an artefact of absorption of the underlying continuum while the `core' soft emission can be attributed to recombination in an extended region of more highly ionised gas. We note the wider implications of finding substantial cold dense matter overlying (or embedded in) the X-ray continuum source in a luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy.Comment: 34 pages, 15 figures, submitted to Ap

    Gas phase hydrogen permeation in alpha titanium and carbon steels

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    Commercially pure titanium and heats of Armco ingot iron and steels containing from 0.008-1.23 w/oC were annealed or normalized and machined into hollow cylinders. Coefficients of diffusion for alpha-Ti and alpha-Fe were determined by the lag-time technique. Steady state permeation experiments yield first power pressure dependence for alpha-Ti and Sievert's law square root dependence for Armco iron and carbon steels. As in the case of diffusion, permeation data confirm that alpha-titanium is subject to at least partial phase boundary reaction control while the steels are purely diffusion controlled. The permeation rate in steels also decreases as the carbon content increases. As a consequence of Sievert's law, the computed hydrogen solubility decreases as the carbon content increases. This decreases in explained in terms of hydrogen trapping at carbide interfaces. Oxidizing and nitriding the surfaces of alpha-titanium membranes result in a decrease in the permeation rate for such treatment on the gas inlet surfaces but resulted in a slight increase in the rate for such treatment on the gas outlet surfaces. This is explained in terms of a discontinuous TiH2 layer

    An MHD Model For Magnetar Giant Flares

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    Giant flares on soft gamma-ray repeaters that are thought to take place on magnetars release enormous energy in a short time interval. Their power can be explained by catastrophic instabilities occurring in the magnetic field configuration and the subsequent magnetic reconnection. By analogy with the coronal mass ejection (CME) events on the Sun, we develop a theoretical model via an analytic approach for magnetar giant flares. In this model, the rotation and/or displacement of the crust causes the field to twist and deform, leading to flux rope formation in the magnetosphere and energy accumulation in the related configuration. When the energy and helicity stored in the configuration reach a threshold, the system loses its equilibrium, the flux rope is ejected outward in a catastrophic way, and magnetic reconnection helps the catastrophe develop to a plausible eruption. By taking SGR 1806 - 20 as an example, we calculate the free magnetic energy released in such an eruptive process and find that it is more than 104710^{47} ergs, which is enough to power a giant flare. The released free magnetic energy is converted into radiative energy, kinetic energy and gravitational energy of the flux rope. We calculated the light curves of the eruptive processes for the giant flares of SGR 1806 - 20, SGR 0526-66 and SGR 1900+14, and compared them with the observational data. The calculated light curves are in good agreement with the observed light curves of giant flares.Comment: Accepted to Ap
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