1,575 research outputs found

    The effect of environment on post surgical overall well-being and pain sensitivity in an animal model

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    With chronic post surgical pain affecting up to one third of patients undergoing surgeries and the price of treatment being astoundingly high there has been a transition in research to investigate and identify risk factors. Through identification of risk factors new preventative measures can be taken to ensure better surgical outcomes. The role that psychosocial factors can play in the development of chronic post surgical pain has long been recognized yet its mechanisms are still unknown. We aim to investigate how environment can play a direct role in pain perception and sensitivity. We used a Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) paradigm to induce depression in 10 adult male mice, we used 10 control mice who were left in standard opti cages, and 10 enriched mice who were placed in large enrichment cages. CMS mice were exposed to a series of stressors and all mice underwent spared nerve injury surgery. During spared nerve injury the common peroneal and tibial branches of the sciatic nerve were severed while the sural branch was left intact. Overall well-being and pain threshold of mice were tested via Von Frey, Hot Plate, Heat Place Preference, Dynamic Weight Bearing, Hole Board, and Social Interaction. It was found that CMS mice experienced thermal hyperalgesia yet normal thermal threshold sensation. CMS mice also spent less time interacting with novel mice in social interaction, and less amount of time exploring the center of the hole board arena than control or enriched mice. While Von Frey results did not change over the course of the experiment, dynamic weight bearing results indicated spared nerve injury surgery was successful and produced chronic pain. Results indicate that environment plays a role in thermal pain perception and CMS affected overall well being of mice as CMS mice exhibited more timid and anxious behavior

    Evaluate the importance of giving antenatal corticosteroids in respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates

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    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of early neonatal morbidity and mortality in late preterm infants (LPIs) worldwide. The aim: The study is intended to evaluate the importance of giving antenatal corticosteroids in decreasing respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates. Materials and methods: Prospective cohort study done in all preterms delivered in the hospital attached to those admitted in our neonatal intensive care unit during the study duration are taken as the source. All preterm babies are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Results: The overall incidence of RDS in this study was 30 (15 %), among which 7 (7 %) were exposed to steroids, and 23 (23 %) were not exposed to steroids. Antenatal corticosteroids were significantly associated with reduced incidence of RDS in preterms (neonates born between 28–37 weeks of gestational age). The overall incidence of TTN (transient tachypnea) was found to be 46 (28 %) in this study, among which 14 (14 %) were exposed to steroids, and 32 (32 %) were not exposed to steroids. Antenatal corticosteroids were significantly associated with reduced incidence of TTN in preterms. Antenatal corticosteroids significantly reduce the need for supplemental oxygen, NICU admission, need for CPAP and mortality rate. The dose of antenatal corticosteroids was significantly associated with the incidence of RDS and TTN. 2 doses of steroids reduced RDS and TTN significantly compared to the single dose, which was just significantly associated. This study found no significance between RDS and TTN with gestational age, mode of delivery, birth weight and RDS among steroid-exposed babies. Conclusion: The use of antenatal corticosteroids should be promoted because they successfully lowered morbidity and mortality among premature newborns in the population studied. In order to optimise proper and timely prenatal corticosteroid treatment, this study underlines the necessity for quality improvement initiatives

    Breastfeeding: Current knowledge, attitude, and practices among mothers in Mahbubnagar

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    Background: Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and cognitive development of infants. Many sociodemographic factors play a major role in the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) of the infants which needs to be thoroughly understood and analyzed to achieve the WHO recommended goal of EBF. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to describe the breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 2 years of life and to assess the influence of cultural and socioeconomic factors. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted between 2016 and 2017 in the immunization clinic and postnatal ward in a medical college of South India. A closed structured questionnaire in local language on knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding prelacteal feeds, breastfeeding, and complementary feeding based on the National Family Health Survey-4 was given to mothers of 500 children aged 0–24 months. Data collected included the baseline sociodemographic characteristics, time of initiation of breastfeeding, period of EBF, continued breastfeeding following introduction of complementary foods, and type of complementary foods introduced. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: A total of 500 mothers were included in the study. The mean age of mothers was 20.8±2.75 years. Majority of the mothers (231 out of 500) started breastfeeding within 1 h (46.3%), whereas 98 mothers (19.6%) initiated breastfeeding as late as after 24 h. Colostrum was fed to babies in 84.16% of the cases. Prelacteal feeds were given in 24.13% of cases. EBF from day 1 was started in 72% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started complementary foods only after 6 months. Conclusion: This study reveals the need for health promotion to focus on the benefits of EBF for both the infant and mother. Education should target new mothers and family members as they have a strong influence on child-rearing practices

    Drivers of Human Resource Development Climate: OCTAPAC Culture- A Study on Selected Aviation Companies, Bangalore, India

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    The subject will rotate around the drivers of the Human Resource Development atmosphere through OCTAPAC culture meaning Openness, Confrontation, Trustiness, Autonomy, Proactivity, Authenticity, and Collaboration. It will center on the OCTAPAC culture within the governing body and how it prompts the development of the human asset and additionally prompt proficiency and efficiency in Aviation organizations in Bangalore. Moreover, a strong atmosphere generally is essential for human asset developing to be adequately actualized. Such steady atmospheres comprise not just direction and logical argument management's commitment but also great workforce approaches and positive posture towards advancement which is achievable by having an OCTAPAC culture. A good HRD mechanism such as rewards, career planning, acknowledgment and so forth are factors that bring about a positive working environment and culture in an organization and which also promotes effective communication and teamwork. Keywords: OCTAPAC culture, Human Resource Development mechanism, Aviation DOI: 10.7176/EJBM/11-32-04 Publication date: November 30th 201

    Periodontal Probes - A Review

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    A periodontal probe till today remains the most important diagnostic tool in periodontal diseases. A probe is used to make initial assessment, followed by detailed evaluation to determine the extent and degree of severity of disease and tissue destruction for specific treatment planning. During treatment the probe is applied to assess the progress. After treatment, use of the probe helps to determine the completion of professional services as recognized by the health status of the tissue. This article provides the reader with the review of periodontal probes which throws light on clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention and management

    Study of Cognition in Type 2 Diabetes with Yoga Asana and Pranayama

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    ABSTRACT Cognition is the process an organism uses to organize the information. Cognition can be used to assess the functional status of the brain. Our main objective of the study is to see the effect of yoga asana and pranayama on cognition in type2 diabetes by using Mini Mental State Examination. The design of our study is Informal experimental design. We have selected 50 type 2 diabetic subjects aged between 35 to 60 years, who are on oral hypoglycemic agents. Subjects are divided in to two groups; control group includes 25 type 2 diabetic subjects who are not having any significant physical activity and examination group includes 25 type 2 diabetic subjects who are doing specific yoga asana and pranayama daily for 30-45 minutes since 1 year. The Mini-Mental State Examination is a widely used, well-validated screening tool for cognitive impairment. It briefly measures orientation to time and place, immediate recall, short-term verbal memory, calculation, language, and construct ability. Each area tested as a designated point value, with the maximum possible score being 30/30. Cognition is significantly more in examination group than the control group. Data was analyzed by using unpaired t-test and P value is <0.05

    Electrospun metal oxides nanostructures for energy related devices

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    Metal oxide nanostructures of wide bandgap semiconductors with various morphologies, high degree of crystallinity and surface properties were fabricated by electrospinning a polymeric solution containing respective metal ions and their controlled heat treatment. The metal oxide nanostructures thus developed were tested for their application as charge separation and transport medium in solar cells, cathodes for low voltage (2 V) lithium ion batteries, and super capacitors. The solar cells thus fabricated features enhanced electron diffusion coefficient and energy storage devices featured stable electrochemical cycling thereby making electrospun metal oxide nanostructures a viable product for next generation energy industry