3,722 research outputs found

    Comparazione di metodi termovisivi per l’identificazione di aree umide su materiali dell’edilizia storica

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    Water content inside building materials (plaster, brick, stone) is usefull to evaluate their decay level. Passive and active termography are compared, in order to define the most reliable procedure, firstly to map the moisture diffusion and secondary to evaluate the moisture content in the surfaces. Laboratory researches carried out in the last decades and scientific literature permitted to determine that the superficial decay in porous materials is more related to the evaporative speed of the surfaces and the presence of soluble salts than to their absorption capability. Moreover, evaporative fluxes were studied at different environmental conditions and water content in order to find out a correlation between moisture content, evaporation and boundary conditions. The thermal characteristics of timber are highly different from the characteristics of porous materials such as brick and stone and mortar, particularly the thermal capacity of wood is lower. Nevertheless, because of the lower heat capacity of wood, the presence of water greatly affects the wood thermal capacity: the active procedure, guarantees the best results. Lab tests and study case permit to evaluate the sensitivity of the method

    An instrument for low-level measurements of the leakage current from high-voltage biased detectors

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    Resistive Plates Chambers (RPC) are detectors biased at High-Voltage (HV) in excess of 4 kV. When fired by a particle, they develop a large signal current that can be read across a small resistance, 100 Omega or so. A characterization has been made of their ageing as a function of the behaviour of their leakage current with time. An array of 10 detectors has been developed for this purpose. We present the instrument designed and built to perform a continuous and automatic monitoring of the leakage current from each detector of the array, while the system is taking data. For the particular biasing set-up adopted, the current has been measured in series to the terminal connected to the HV of every channel. Since the small value of the currents, order of tens of nA, a special circuit solution and special precautions have been adopte

    Design of broadband high-efficiency superconducting-nanowire single photon detectors

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    In this paper several designs to maximize the absorption efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors are investigated. Using a simple optical cavity consisting of a gold mirror and a SiO2 layer, the absorption efficiency can be boosted to over 97%: this result is confirmed experimentally by the realization of an NbTiN-based detector having an overall system detection efficiency of 85% at 1.31 micrometers. Calculations show that by sandwiching the nanowire between two dielectric Bragg reflectors, unity absorption (> 99.9%) could be reached at the peak wavelength for optimized structures. To achieve broadband high efficiency, a different approach is considered: a waveguide-coupled detector. The calculations performed in this work show that, by correctly dimensioning the waveguide and the nanowire, polarization-insensitive detectors absorbing more than 95% of the injected photons over a wavelength range of several hundred nm can be designed. We propose a detector design making use of GaN/AlN waveguides, since these materials allow lattice-matched epitaxial deposition of Nb(Ti)N films and are transparent on a very wide wavelength range

    Virtual Reality Social Prediction Improvement and Rehabilitation Intensive Training (VR-SPIRIT) for paediatric patients with congenital cerebellar diseases: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

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    Background: Patients with cerebellar malformations exhibit not only movement problems, but also important deficits in social cognition. Thus, rehabilitation approaches should not only involve the recovery of motor function but also of higher-order abilities such as processing of social stimuli. In keeping with the general role of the cerebellum in anticipating and predicting events, we used a VR-based rehabilitation system to implement a social cognition intensive training specifically tailored to improve predictive abilities in social scenarios (VR-Spirit). Methods/design: The study is an interventional randomised controlled trial that aims to recruit 42 children, adolescents and young adults with congenital cerebellar malformations, randomly allocated to the experimental group or the active control group. The experimental group is administered the VR-Spirit, requiring the participants to compete with different avatars in the reaching of recreational equipment and implicitly prompting them to form expectations about their playing preference. The active control group participates in a VR-training with standard games currently adopted for motor rehabilitation. Both trainings are composed by eight 45-min sessions and are administered in the GRAIL VR laboratory (Motekforce Link, Netherlands), an integrated platform that allows patients to move in natural and attractive VR environments. An evaluation session in VR with the same paradigm used in the VR-Spirit but implemented in a different scenario is administered at the beginning (T0) of the two trainings (T1) and at the end (T2). Moreover, a battery of neurocognitive tests spanning different domains is administered to all participants at T0, T2 and in a follow-up session after 2 months from the end of the two trainings (T3). Discussion: This study offers a novel approach for rehabilitation based on specific neural mechanisms of the cerebellum. We aim to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of a new, intensive, social cognition training in a sample of Italian patients aged 7-25 years with congenital cerebellar malformations. We expect that VR-Spirit could enhance social prediction ability and indirectly improve cognitive performance in diverse domains. Moreover, through the comparison with a VR-active control training we aim to verify the specificity of VR-Spirit in improving social perception skills. Trial registration: ISRCTN, ID: ISRCTN 22332873. Retrospectively registered on 12 March 2018

    Ageing and recovering of glass RPC

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    The glass Resistive Plate Chambers efficiency before and after water vapour flushing have been studied. The efficiency has been observed to rapidly drop to the level of 30% after a few days. After few hours of ammonia flushing, a full recover of the device occurred. Surprisingly, further flushing with water vapour had no effect on the efficiency, suggesting a treatment before the use in an experiment and/or whenever the performance is poor. In this work experimental results on tests at high temperature (up to 55∘C), high rate (up to 100Hz/cm2) and ageing (up to 10mC/cm2) are reported

    Fattori influenzanti la conservazione dei residui uditivi negli impianti cocleari

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    La possibilità di conservazione dei residui uditivi è stata correlata a fattori chirurgici quali il tipo di cocleostomia (transfenestrale vs. promontoriale), l’uso di lubrificanti e farmaci otoprotettivi, e a fattori legati all’impianto quali la forma, la lunghezza e la flessibilità dell’elettrodo. Abbiamo studiato l’impatto di questi fattori sul tasso di conservazione dell’udito residuo in adulti e bambini con indicazioni audiologiche convenzionali all’impianto cocleare. Ottantadue bambini di età compresa tra 1 e 9 anni e 73 adulti (tra 16 e 79 anni) hanno ricevuto un IC monolaterale, nell’orecchio destro (59%) o sinistro (41%). Una cocleostomia promontoriale antero-inferiore è stata impiegata in 143 orecchi (92%), e un approccio a trans-fenestrale in 12 (8%). Un elettrodo perimodiolare è stato impiantato in 144 orecchi (93%); un elettrodo “straight” è stato utilizzato nei rimanenti 11 (7%). Complessivamente, un residuo uditivo post-operatorio è stato mantenuto nel 39% dei casi. Il tasso di conservazione è stato superiore alle frequenze gravi rispetto alle acute. Quando correlato all’età, al lato dell’impianto, al modello di elettrodo e al tipo di cocleostomia, le variazioni medie di soglia uditiva acustica non sono risultate statisticamente significative per alcuna di queste variabili. Un lieve trend in favore di una migliore conservazione uditiva si è osservato nei bambini rispetto agli adulti, specialmente alle frequenze gravi

    A new concept for streamer quenching in resistive plate chambers

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    In this paper we propose a new concept for streamer quenching in Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs). In our approach, the multiplication process is quenched by the appropriate design of a mechanical structure inserted between the two resistive electrodes. We show that stable performance is achieved with binary gas mixtures based on argon and a small fraction of isobutane. Fluorocarbons, deemed responsible for the degradation of the electrode inner surface of RPC detectors, are thus fully eliminated from the gas mixture. This design {also resulted} in a simplified assembly procedure. Preliminary results obtained with a few prototypes of ``Mechanically Quenched RPCs'' and some prospects for future developments are discussed

    Exploiting Inter- and Intra-Memory Asymmetries for Data Mapping in Hybrid Tiered-Memories

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    Modern computing systems are embracing hybrid memory comprising of DRAM and non-volatile memory (NVM) to combine the best properties of both memory technologies, achieving low latency, high reliability, and high density. A prominent characteristic of DRAM-NVM hybrid memory is that it has NVM access latency much higher than DRAM access latency. We call this inter-memory asymmetry. We observe that parasitic components on a long bitline are a major source of high latency in both DRAM and NVM, and a significant factor contributing to high-voltage operations in NVM, which impact their reliability. We propose an architectural change, where each long bitline in DRAM and NVM is split into two segments by an isolation transistor. One segment can be accessed with lower latency and operating voltage than the other. By introducing tiers, we enable non-uniform accesses within each memory type (which we call intra-memory asymmetry), leading to performance and reliability trade-offs in DRAM-NVM hybrid memory. We extend existing NVM-DRAM OS in three ways. First, we exploit both inter- and intra-memory asymmetries to allocate and migrate memory pages between the tiers in DRAM and NVM. Second, we improve the OS's page allocation decisions by predicting the access intensity of a newly-referenced memory page in a program and placing it to a matching tier during its initial allocation. This minimizes page migrations during program execution, lowering the performance overhead. Third, we propose a solution to migrate pages between the tiers of the same memory without transferring data over the memory channel, minimizing channel occupancy and improving performance. Our overall approach, which we call MNEME, to enable and exploit asymmetries in DRAM-NVM hybrid tiered memory improves both performance and reliability for both single-core and multi-programmed workloads.Comment: 15 pages, 29 figures, accepted at ACM SIGPLAN International Symposium on Memory Managemen

    Testing Beam-Induced Quench Levels of LHC Superconducting Magnets

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    In the years 2009-2013 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been operated with the top beam energies of 3.5 TeV and 4 TeV per proton (from 2012) instead of the nominal 7 TeV. The currents in the superconducting magnets were reduced accordingly. To date only seventeen beam-induced quenches have occurred; eight of them during specially designed quench tests, the others during injection. There has not been a single beam- induced quench during normal collider operation with stored beam. The conditions, however, are expected to become much more challenging after the long LHC shutdown. The magnets will be operating at near nominal currents, and in the presence of high energy and high intensity beams with a stored energy of up to 362 MJ per beam. In this paper we summarize our efforts to understand the quench levels of LHC superconducting magnets. We describe beam-loss events and dedicated experiments with beam, as well as the simulation methods used to reproduce the observable signals. The simulated energy deposition in the coils is compared to the quench levels predicted by electro-thermal models, thus allowing to validate and improve the models which are used to set beam-dump thresholds on beam-loss monitors for Run 2.Comment: 19 page
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