191 research outputs found

    A traditional mediterranean diet effectively reduces inflammation and improves cardiovascular health

    Get PDF
    Chrysohoou et al. fifteen years ago, showed in an elegant analysis nested within the ATTICA study [1] that a dietary score reflecting adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was inversely associated with plasma biomarkers of low-grade inflammation. Specifically, participants in the highest tertile of adherence to the MedDiet presented 20% lower levels of highly-sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP), 17% lower levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and 14% lower white blood cell counts. This was an observational study that could be affected by residual confounding and other potential imperfections. However, another similar study, this time nested within the Nurses Cohort in the USA [2], assessed hs-CRP, IL-6, E-selectin, soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and found that better adherence to the MedDiet was also associated with a reduction in inflammatory biomarker concentrations, with relative reductions of 24% in hs-CRP, 16% in IL-6, and 13% in E-selectin concentrations [2]. These well conducted observational studies were subsequently confirmed by a randomized clinical trial (the pilot study of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) trial) where we were able to show that an intervention with 2 MedDiets maintained during 3 months was able to reduce hs-CRP, IL-6 (in both cases) and adhesion molecules compared to a low-fat diet [3]. However, hs-CRP was reduced only when the MedDiet was supplemented with polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil, but not with nuts

    Evidences on three relevant obesogenes: MC4R, FTO and PPARő≥. Approaches for personalized nutrition.

    Get PDF
    Obesity is a complex disease that results from the interaction between lifestyle (dietary patterns and sedentary habits) and genetic factors. The recognition of a genetic basis for human obesity have driven to identify putative causal genes to understand the pathways that control body mass and fat deposition in humans as well as to provide personalized treatments and prevention strategies to fight against obesity. More than 120 candidate genes have been associated with obesity-related traits. GWAS (genome-wide association study) have so far identified over 20 novel loci convincingly associated with adiposity. This review is specifically focused on the study of the effects of MC4R, PPARő≥ and FTO gene variants and their interactions with dietary intake, physical activity or drug administration on body weight control. The advances in this field are expected to open new ways in genome-customized diets for obesity prevention and therapy following personalized approaches.

    A 3-year Mediterranean-style dietary intervention may modulate the association between adiponectin gene variants and body weight change

    Get PDF
    Purpose Adiponectin gene variations have been associated with obesity. There are few interventional studies analyzing this association. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a nutritional intervention with Mediterranean-style diet and three (-4034A/C, +45T/G and +276 G/T) adiponectin gene variants on 3-year body weight changes in high cardiovascular risk patients Subjects and methods A total of 737 participants, aged 55-80 at high cardiovascular risk were assigned to a low-fat diet or to a Mediterranean-style diet (MD) groups, one with high intake of virgin olive oil (VOO) and the other with high intake of nuts. Anthropometric parameters were taken at baseline and after 3-year follow-up, and the genotyping of the -4034A/C, +45T/G and +276 G/T polymorphisms was done. Results GG genotype of the +45T/G polymorphism was associated with 3-year higher body weight gain (B=1.399; B=0.043). TT genotype of the +276G/T polymorphism was linked to the highest 3-year body weight gain in men. Both Mediterranean diets appeared to reverse this effect (p for interaction=0.053). Conclusion Adiponectin gene variation appeared to be associated with 3-year body weight changes in a high cardiovascular risk population. This association may be modulated by a nutritional intervention with a Mediterranean-style diet

    The Mediterranean diet protects against waist circumference enlargement in 12Ala carriers for the PPARgamma gene: 2 years' follow-up of 774 subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

    Get PDF
    The PPARgamma gene regulates insulin sensitivity and adipogenesis. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of this gene has been related to fat accumulation. Our aim was to analyse the effects of a 2-year nutritional intervention with Mediterranean-style diets on adiposity in high-cardiovascular risk patients depending on the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARgamma gene. The population consisted of a substudy (774 high-risk subjects aged 55-80 years) of the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) randomised trial aimed at assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet for CVD prevention. There were three nutritional intervention groups: two of them of a Mediterranean-style diet and the third was a control group advised to follow a conventional low-fat diet. All the participants were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The results showed that carriers of the 12Ala allele allocated to the control group had a statistically significant higher change in waist circumference (adjusted difference coefficient = 2.37 cm; P = 0.014) compared with wild-type subjects after 2 years of nutritional intervention. This adverse effect was not observed among 12Ala carriers allocated to both Mediterranean diet groups. In diabetic patients a statistically significant interaction between Mediterranean diet and the 12Ala allele regarding waist circumference change was observed ( - 5.85 cm; P = 0.003). In conclusion, the Mediterranean diet seems to be able to reduce waist circumference in a high-cardiovascular risk population, reversing the negative effect that the 12Ala allele carriers of the PPARgamma gene appeared to have. The beneficial effect of this dietary pattern seems to be higher among type 2 diabetic subjects

    Pooled-DNA sequencing identifies novel causative variants in PSEN1, GRN and MAPT in a clinical early-onset and familial Alzheimer’s disease Ibero-American cohort

    Get PDF
    INTRODUCTION: Some familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are caused by rare and highly-penetrant mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2. Mutations in GRN and MAPT, two genes associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), have been found in clinically diagnosed AD cases. Due to the dramatic developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS), high-throughput sequencing of targeted genomic regions of the human genome in many individuals in a single run is now cheap and feasible. Recent findings favor the rare variant-common disease hypothesis by which the combination effects of rare variants could explain a large proportion of the heritability. We utilized NGS to identify rare and pathogenic variants in APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, and MAPT in an Ibero-American cohort. METHODS: We performed pooled-DNA sequencing of each exon and flanking sequences in APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, MAPT and GRN in 167 clinical and 5 autopsy-confirmed AD cases (15 familial early-onset, 136 sporadic early-onset and 16 familial late-onset) from Spain and Uruguay using NGS. Follow-up genotyping was used to validate variants. After genotyping additional controls, we performed segregation and functional analyses to determine the pathogenicity of validated variants. RESULTS: We identified a novel G to T transition (g.38816G>T) in exon 6 of PSEN1 in a sporadic early-onset AD case, resulting in a previously described pathogenic p.L173F mutation. A pathogenic p.L392V mutation in exon 11 was found in one familial early-onset AD case. We also identified a novel CC insertion (g.10974_10975insCC) in exon 8 of GRN, which introduced a premature stop codon, resulting in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. This GRN mutation was associated with lower GRN plasma levels, as previously reported for other GRN pathogenic mutations. We found two variants in MAPT (p.A152T, p.S318L) present only in three AD cases but not controls, suggesting that these variants could be risk factors for the disease. CONCLUSIONS: We found pathogenic mutations in PSEN1, GRN and MAPT in 2.33% of the screened cases. This study suggests that pathogenic mutations or risk variants in MAPT and in GRN are as frequent in clinical AD cases as mutations in APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2, highlighting that pleiotropy of MAPT or GRN mutations can influence both FTD and AD phenotypic traits

    Correlation between serum advanced glycation end products and dietary intake of advanced glycation end products estimated from home cooking and food frequency questionnaires

    Get PDF
    Abstract Background & aims: To our knowledge the association between dietary advanced glycation end-products (dAGEs) and cardiometabolic disease is limited. Our aim was to examine the association between dAGEs and serum concentration of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) or soluble receptor advanced glycation end-products (sRAGEs), and to assess the difference on dAGEs and circulating AGEs according to lifestyle and biochemical measures. Methods and results: 52 overweight or obese adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were included in this cross-sectional analysis. dAGEs were estimated from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) or from a FFQ √ĺ Home Cooking Frequency Questionnaire (HCFQ). Serum concentrations of CML and sRAGEs were measured by ELISA. Correlation tests were used to analyze the association between dAGEs derived from the FFQ or FFQ √ĺ HCFQ and concentrations of CML or sRAGEs. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and biochemical measures were analyzed according to sRAGEs and dAGEs using student t-test and ANCOVA. A significant inverse association was found between serum sRAGEs and dAGEs estimated using the FFQ √ĺ HCFQ (r Z 0.36, p Z 0.010), whereas no association was found for dAGEs derived from the FFQ alone. No association was observed between CML and dAGEs. dAGEs intake estimated from the FFQ √ĺ HCFQ was significantly higher among younger and male participants, and in those with higher BMI, higher Hb1Ac levels, longer time with type 2 diabetes, lower adherence to Mediterranean diet, and higher use of culinary techniques that generate more AGEs (all p values p < 0.05). Conclusions: These results show knowledge on culinary techniques is relevant to derive the association between dAGEs intake and cardiometabolic risk factors

    Longitudinal association of telomere length and obesity indices in an intervention study with a Mediterranean diet: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA trial

    Get PDF
    Background: Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that protect the ends of eukaryote chromosomes. Shorter telomere length (TL) is associated with some age-related human disorders, but its relationship with obesity or adiposity parameters remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TL and changes in adiposity indices after a 5-year nutritional intervention. Design and subjects: TL was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in 521 subjects (55-80 years, 55% women). Participants were randomly selected from the PREDIMED-NAVARRA centre after they completed a 5-year intervention programme. Anthropometric parameters were directly measured by trained personnel at baseline and on a yearly basis thereafter. TL at baseline and changes in TL after a 5-year intervention were assessed. Results: Higher baseline TL significantly predicted a greater decrease in body weight (B=‚ąí1.09‚ÄČkg, 95% confidence interval (CI): ‚ąí2.01 to ‚ąí0.16), body mass index (BMI) (B=‚ąí0.47‚ÄČkg‚ÄČm‚ąí2, 95% CI: ‚ąí0.83 to ‚ąí0.11), waist circumference (B=‚ąí1.15‚ÄČcm, 95% CI: ‚ąí2.28 to ‚ąí0.01) and waist to height ratio (B=‚ąí0.008, 95% CI: ‚ąí0.010 to ‚ąí0.001) in multiple-adjusted models. In addition, changes in TL during the 5-year intervention were inversely associated with changes in the four anthropometric variables. The reduction in adiposity indices during the intervention, associated with increasing TL, was even higher among subjects with the longest telomeres at baseline. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of remaining obese after 5 years was lower in those participants who initially had the longest telomeres and increased their TL after intervention (odds ratio=0.27, 95% CI: 0.03-2.03). Conclusions: Our research suggests that TL is inversely associated with changes in obesity parameters. The assessment of TL can provide further insights for biological pathways leading to adiposity. We show for the first time an improvement of obesity indices when an increase in TL is observed after a 5-year Mediterranean diet intervention

    Review of Technological Challenges in Personalised Medicine and Early Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Get PDF
    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterised by progressive neuron loss in specific brain areas. The most common are Alzheimer‚Äôs disease and Parkinson‚Äôs disease; in both cases, diagnosis is based on clinical tests with limited capability to discriminate between similar neurodegenerative disorders and detect the early stages of the disease. It is common that by the time a patient is diagnosed with the disease, the level of neurodegeneration is already severe. Thus, it is critical to find new diagnostic methods that allow earlier and more accurate disease detection. This study reviews the methods available for the clinical diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and potentially interesting new technologies. Neuroimaging techniques are the most widely used in clinical practice, and new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have significantly improved the diagnosis quality. Identifying biomarkers in peripheral samples such as blood or cerebrospinal fluid is a major focus of the current research on neurodegenerative diseases. The discovery of good markers could allow preventive screening to identify early or asymptomatic stages of the neurodegenerative process. These methods, in combination with artificial intelligence, could contribute to the generation of predictive models that will help clinicians in the early diagnosis, stratification, and prognostic assessment of patients, leading to improvements in patient treatment and quality of life.This publication is part of the Grant PID2 021-126434OB-I00 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and ERDF A way of making Europe. It has also been funded by the Basque Government (IT1706-22 and PUE21-03) and the University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU (GIU19/092 and COLAB20/07). This research was conducted in the scope of the Transborder Joint Laboratory (LTC) ‚Äúnon-motor Comorbidities in Parkinson‚Äôs Disease (CoMorPD)‚ÄĚ

    Egg consumption and dyslipidemia in a Mediterranean cohort

    Get PDF
    Introduction and objectives: Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the association between egg consumption and dyslipidemia in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods: We followed-up 13,104 Spanish university graduates for a mean period of 8 years. Dietary habits at baseline were assessed using a validated semi-quantitative 136-item food-frequency questionnaire. Self-reported blood concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglycerides were evaluated according to categories of egg consumption after 6 and 8 years of follow-up. We also assessed the association between baseline egg consumption and the incidence of hypercholesterolemia, low HDL-c concentrations and hypertriglyceridemia during follow-up. Results: We observed a significant inverse association for intermediate levels of egg consumption (2 to 4 eggs/week vs. less than 1 egg/week) and hypertriglyceridemia with OR = 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54 to 0.93, p < 0.05) in the multivariable-adjusted model. Using HDL-c values after 8-year follow-up, we found an association between higher egg consumption and lower HDL-c levels (p for trend = 0.02) with an adjusted difference of ‚Äď4.01 mg/dl (-7.42 to -0.61) for > 4 vs. < 1 egg/week. Lower means of triglycerides were found in each of the three upper categories of egg consumption compared to the lowest category (< 1 egg/week) with significant results for some of these categories both after 6 and 8 year follow-up. Conclusions: Our data do not support that higher egg consumption was associated with abnormal blood levels of total cholesterol or triglycerides; an inverse association with HDL-c as a quantitative variable was found only in one of our analyses.Introducci√≥n y objetivos: evaluar prospectivamente la asociaci√≥n entre el consumo de huevo y el riesgo de dislipidemia en una cohorte mediterr√°nea. M√©todos: se siguieron 13.104 graduados universitarios espa√Īoles durante un periodo medio de 8 a√Īos. La dieta se evalu√≥ al inicio utilizando un cuestionario semicuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos repetidamente validado. Las concentraciones sangu√≠neas de colesterol total, lipoprote√≠nas de alta densidad (HDL-c) y triglic√©ridos autorreferidas fueron evaluadas seg√ļn categor√≠as de consumo de huevo tras 6 y 8 a√Īos de seguimiento. Tambi√©n se evalu√≥ la asociaci√≥n entre el consumo basal de huevo y la incidencia de hipercolesterolemia, concentraciones bajas de HDL-c e hipertrigliceridemia durante el seguimiento. Resultados: se observ√≥ una asociaci√≥n entre los niveles intermedios de consumo de huevo (2-4 unidades/semana frente a < 1 unidad/semana) y menor riesgo de hipertrigliceridemia con OR = 0,71 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC]: 0,54 a 0,93, p < 0,05) en el modelo m√°s ajustado. Tras 8 a√Īos de seguimiento, encontramos una asociaci√≥n entre un mayor consumo de huevo y menores niveles de HDL-c (p tendencia lineal = 0,02) con una diferencia ajustada de -4,01 mg/dl (-7,42 a -0,61) para > 4 vs. < 1 unidad/semana. Se encontraron menores concentraciones de triglic√©ridos en las tres categor√≠as superiores de consumo de huevo en comparaci√≥n con la inferior con resultados significativos para algunas de estas categor√≠as despu√©s de 6 y 8 a√Īos de seguimiento. Conclusiones: un mayor consumo de huevo no se asoci√≥ con niveles anormales de colesterol total o triglic√©ridos; se encontr√≥ una asociaci√≥n inversa con HDL-c como variable cuantitativa solo en uno de nuestros an√°lisis

    Fatty Acids Composition of Blood Cell Membranes and Peripheral Inflammation in the PREDIMED Study: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Get PDF
    There is limited evidence from epidemiological studies for the inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties of fatty acids in blood cell membranes. Therefore, this study examined associations between baseline (n = 282) and 1-year (n = 143) changes in the levels of fatty acids in blood cell membranes with circulating inflammatory markers in older adults at high cardiovascular risk. The data for this cross-sectional analysis was obtained from a case-control study within the PREDIMED study. Linear regression with elastic net penalty was applied to test associations between measured fatty acids and inflammatory markers. Several fatty acids were associated with interferon-ő≥ (IFNő≥) and interleukins (ILs) IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 at baseline and additionally also with IL-1b at 1 year. Omega-6 fatty acids were consistently positively associated with pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-8 at baseline. Omega-3 fatty acids including C20:5n3 and C18:3n3 were negatively associated with IFN-ő≥ at 1 year. It is interesting to note that the cis and trans forms of C16:1n7 at 1 year were oppositely associated with the inflammatory markers. C16:1n7trans was negatively associated with IFN-ő≥, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-1b, whereas C16:1n7cis was positively associated with IL-1b. This study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting potential differences in inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties of fatty acids in blood cell membranes
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore